A documentary which challenges former Indonesian death-squad leaders to reenact their mass-killings in whichever cinematic genres they wish, including classic Hollywood crime scenarios and lavish musical numbers.


Joshua Oppenheimer, Anonymous (co-director) | 1 more credit »
Nominated for 1 Oscar. Another 53 wins & 42 nominations. See more awards »





Complete credited cast:
Anwar Congo ... Self - Executioner in 1965
Herman Koto ... Self - Gangster and Paramilitary Leader
Syamsul Arifin Syamsul Arifin ... Self - Governor of North Sumatra
Ibrahim Sinik Ibrahim Sinik ... Self - Newspaper Publisher
Yapto Soerjosoemarno ... Self - Leader of Pancasila Youth
Safit Pardede Safit Pardede ... Self - Local Paramilitary Leader
Jusuf Kalla ... Self - Vice President of Indonesia
Adi Zulkadry ... Self - Fellow Executioner in 1965
Soaduon Siregar Soaduon Siregar ... Self - Journalist
Suryono ... Self - Anwar's Neighbor
Haji Marzuki Haji Marzuki ... Self - Member of North Sumatra Parliament (as Marzuki)
Haji Anif ... Self - Paramilitary Leader and Businessman
Rahmat Shah Rahmat Shah ... Self - Member of Parliament
Sakhyan Asmara Sakhyan Asmara ... Self - Deputy Minister of Youth and Sport


A documentary which challenges former Indonesian death-squad leaders to reenact their mass-killings in whichever cinematic genres they wish, including classic Hollywood crime scenarios and lavish musical numbers.

Plot Summary | Plot Synopsis


A story of killers who win, and the society they build See more »


Not Rated | See all certifications »

Parents Guide:

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Did You Know?


Joshua Oppenheimer began interviewing survivors and victims families of the events of 1965 before moving the focus of the film to the murderers following interference from local authorities. Anwar Congo was the 41st perpetrator/killer he interviewed. See more »


Anwar Congo: Honestly, I never expected it would look this awful. My friends kept telling me to act more sadistic. But then I saw the women and children. Imagine those children's future. They've been tortured. Now their houses are burnt down. What future do they have? They will curse us for the rest of their lives. This was so very, very, very...
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Crazy Credits

The name "Anonymous" appears 49 times under 27 different crew positions in the credits. This was done to protect the identities of those crew members who feared retribution from the former Indonesian death squad leaders. See more »

Alternate Versions

The 159-min version is the director's cut. It is the only version being released in Indonesia, and was released alongside the 115-min version in Danish cinemas. Compared to the shorter version, the 159-minute version reveals more of the filmmaking method and also explores the role of propaganda cinema in maintaining anti-communist fervor. The fiction scenes take over the film's form to the extent that ultimately the boundaries between fiction and documentary blur. In the final act, Anwar's descent in the long version is longer and more complex. See more »


References Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI (1984) See more »


Composer: Muhammad Arief
Courtesy of Sinar Samsi
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User Reviews

The horror! The horror!
5 October 2013 | by birthdaynoodleSee all my reviews

I'd be hard-pressed to name any film I've watched that is as strange and disturbing as 'The Act of Killing' (brought to you by executive producers Werner Herzog and Errol Morris).

When Indonesian president Sukarno allied himself with communists in 1965, he was toppled by a military coup and a bloody, anti-communist purge followed. Ethnic Chinese, deemed disproportionately wealthy and corrupt by other Indonesians, were targeted as well – or at least this is how some pretended to justify the genocide of so many innocents. A million people were killed. The same paramilitary death squads that carried out the assassinations are politically strong today and count with government ministers among their members. They proclaim themselves national heroes and boast loudly about their "achievements". Director Joshua Oppenheimer interviews some of these gangsters and invites them to reenact the murder scenes by adapting them to their favorite movie genres (Westerns, musicals, etc.)

I initially wondered whether such a bizarre concept wasn't disrespectful to the victims of the massacre, but I realized that it was precisely this format that enabled the director to revisit history and unearth its truth. Oppenheimer had to stroke the gangsters' egos or he would have never been allowed to film. Some of them, including the main character, Anway, started their criminal careers by scalping tickets at a local cinema and were big fans of Hollywood films. In an article from The Australian newspaper, Oppenheimer explains the documentary's theatrical approach this way: "Killing always involves some kind of distancing from what you are doing. Maybe that always means a kind of performance and acting, some kind of storytelling. Maybe it can just mean drinking first. But for Anwar, in part, it comes from the stories that he would imbibe in the cinema, the images and roles, the process of cinematic identification. The act of killing, for Anwar, was always some kind of act."

The result is both chilling and surreal. It is shocking to see these men proudly celebrating their monstrous crimes, including rape. Have they no empathy? How ignorant, demented and evil can humans be? This reminds me of the BBC documentary mini-series 'The Nazis: A Warning Story', in which former Nazi members speak coldly about their ideology, indifferent to the suffering they have caused. These Indonesian gangsters, however, are still in power and are applauded on national TV, their insanity still shared decades later by a significant portion of the population.

There seems to be a disconnect between these people and their feelings, as if all the violence had somehow rendered them numb. This is most evident in Anwar. While a few of the thugs express some awareness of the harm they have done, Anwar is in a state of denial. He blocks his emotions and appears to bury any remorse for his acts under a fabricated storyline that absolves him. Yet, toxic memories stubbornly surface every night in the form of nightmares. As the film goes on, he slowly wakes up from the cloud of illusion that he has created around him and realizes the horror that he's participated in. This is one of the film's big successes.

It's frightening to picture this kind of cruelty emerge from a marginal, uneducated, third-world environment. But we have to ask ourselves how different we are from them. Don't we turn a blind eye on the killing of civilians carried out by drones in other countries, for example? Don't we also glorify national heroes who wiped out entire populations? As a Venezuelan, I think of the revered Independence leader Bolivar, who ordered the systematic murder of all Spanish civilians with his decree of 'War to the Death'. Every country has its stories. We seem to rationalize these inconvenient facts by telling ourselves that the war was merciless on both sides or that the end somehow justifies the means. Like gangster Adi suggests, history is written by the victors and war crimes are defined by the winners.

At two and a half hours long, the film could use a little more editing, in my opinion. I feel like it would be even more effective if it were stripped down further, removing any hints of sensationalism. I'm confused, for example, as to why Herman, the obese gangster, is dressed in drag during each reenactment. Did he find it comical? Was he aiming for the grotesque? Did he do it out of his own initiative or did the filmmakers encourage this? It gives the impression that someone was trying hard to make things look even weirder, which is completely unnecessary. Maybe there's a good explanation for this. And then again, everything in this film is so bizarre that it often resembles a work of pitch-black satire. Its terrifying strangeness, however, is no joke.

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UK | Denmark | Norway


Indonesian | English

Release Date:

8 November 2012 (Denmark) See more »

Also Known As:

The Act of Killing See more »

Filming Locations:

Medan, Indonesia See more »


Box Office


$1,000,000 (estimated)

Opening Weekend USA:

$27,450, 21 July 2013

Gross USA:


Cumulative Worldwide Gross:

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Company Credits

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Technical Specs


| (extended) | (TV) | (TV)

Sound Mix:

Dolby Digital



Aspect Ratio:

1.85 : 1
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