Kung Fu Panda (2008)
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Tigress uses Tiger Claw Kung Fu System; Crane uses Fujian White Crane Kung Fu; Monkey uses Monkey Kung Fu; Viper uses Snake Kung Fu; Mantis uses Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu; and Tai Lung uses Leopard Kung Fu.
Tiger Claw Kung Fu System (Tigress): "Tiger Claw Kung Fu System has its origins in Hoy Hong Temple. The system was modeled after the demeanor and fighting strategy of an attacking tiger. The striking movements are lightning fast, agile and powerful. Techniques unique to Tiger Claw Kung Fu System are ripping, tearing, clawing and grasping applications. In 1971, Wai Hong sponsored the first full-contact kung fu tournament in the US and which became the model for future US full-contact tournaments. He also founded the Eastern United States Kung-Fu Federation, which he led for eight years. Tiger Claw Kung Fu System has appeared in multiple movies, documentaries, and tournaments."
Fujian White Crane Kung Fu (Crane): "White Crane Kung Fu is a Southern Chinese martial art which originated in Fujian Province and is now practiced throughout the world. According to oral traditions, the creation of this style is attributed to Fong Qoniáng (Amoy Min Nan: Hng Chhit-niâ), a female martial artist. The characteristics of this style are deep-rooted stances, intricate hand techniques and fighting mostly at close range. The Fong family lived in Fujian, a province of China, in a place where there were many cranes. Qoniáng's father knew the Southern Chinese martial arts and taught them to his daughter.
One day, while Qoniáng was doing her chores, a crane alighted nearby. Qoniáng tried to scare the bird off using a stick and the skills she learned from her father but whatever she did, the crane would counter. Qoniáng tried to hit the crane on the head, but the bird moved its head out of the way and blocked the stick with its wings. Qoniáng tried to hit the crane's wings, but the crane stepped to the side and this time blocked with the claws of its feet. Qoniáng tried to poke the crane's body, but the crane dodged backwards and struck the stick with its beak.
From then on, Qoniáng carefully studied the movements of cranes and combined these movements with the martial arts she learned from her father, creating the White Crane Kung Fu style of Fujian Province.
The Ancestral Crane master Dr. Yang, Jwing-Ming dates the creation of Fujian White Crane to c. 1700.
According to the traditions of the Lee family branch of Flying Crane, Fong Qoniáng was born in the mid-18th century.
According to its traditions, the lineage of the Ong Gong Shr Wushuguan in the town of Yongchun (Minnan: Eng Chhun) in the prefecture of Quanzhou in Fujian Province was established when Fong Qoniáng taught its founders during the reign of the Ming emperor Jiozhèng . However, there was no Ming emperor Jiozhèng; there was a Ming emperor Jiojìng, who ruled from 1521 to 1566.
Li Wénmào, a historically verifiable opera performer and leader in the 18541855 Red Turban Rebellion in Foshan, is said to have practiced the Yongchun style of White Crane Kung Fu.
The Xu-Xi Dao style of White Crane Kung Fu derives from Zhong-Ho "Springing Crane" and was developed in Taiwan by Huang Lao-Yang in the 1950s."
Monkey Kung Fu (Monkey): "Monkey Kung Fu is a Chinese martial art where the movements imitate monkeys or apes in fighting. One of the more acrobatic kung fu styles, movements often include falling, lunging, grabbing, jumping, and tumbling. The staff features prominently in its weapons training, with practitioners using it for attack, defense, and even climbing it like a pole to gain height in combat. The flamboyant movements and sometimes comic actions of the monkey style has made it a popular subject in martial arts movies.
Monkey Kung Fu can be traced back to the Han dynasty and is recorded in the Mi Hou Wu dance performed at the Emperor's court. Contrary to popular beliefs, there are actually a number of independently developed systems of Monkey Kung Fu. Examples includes Xingzhemen named after the protagonist Sun Wukong of the popular Ming dynasty novel Journey to the West, Nanhouquan or Southern Monkey Kung Fu originating from the Southern Shaolin Temple as well as the more well known Tai Sheng Pek Kwar Moon style of Hong Kong. The Houquan style from the Emei region, taught by the famous Monkey King and others, was also used as the basis for the modern wushu variant of Monkey Style Kung Fu that is often seen in demonstrations and competitions today. Each independent style has its own unique approach to the expression of how to incorporate a monkey's movements into fighting.
Traditional Monkey Kung Fu as taught in Mainland China includes running on all fours (i.e. the hands and feet), various difficult acrobatic movements such as flipping sideways in the air, front flips, back flips, back handsprings, hand stands, walking on the hands, forward lunges/dives, backward lunges, spinning on the butt, spinning on the back and many kicks and strikes. Most of the attacks are aimed at the knees, groin area, throat or eyes of the opponent and hand strikes are normally either open handed slaps or clawing with a semi-closed fist called the monkey claw. A wide array of facial monkey expressions are also practiced, inclusive of happiness, anger, fear, fright, confusion and bewilderment etc. Except for very brief periods, most movements inclusive of running are executed from either a squatting or semi-squatting position and are normally accompanied by very swift and "jerky" head movements as the practitioner nervously looks around.
There are six variations of Monkey Kung Fu developed as part of the Tai Sheng Men system:
Drunken Monkey uses a lot of throat, eye and groin strikes as well as tumbling and falling techniques. It incorporates a lot of false steps to give the appearance it is defenseless and uses a lot of off balance strikes. The practitioner waddles, takes very faltering steps and sometimes fall to the ground and lies prone while waiting the opponent to approach at which time a devastating attack is launched at the knees or groin areas of the opponent. In Drunken Monkey you use more internal energy than any other. It is one of the most difficult of the monkey styles to master and also the most powerful.
Stone Monkey is a physical style. The practitioner trains up his body to exchange blows with the opponent - Stone Monkey uses a kind of Iron body method. It will leave an area exposed on its body for an opponent to attack, so it can attack a more vital spot on the body.
Lost Monkey feigns a lot. He gives the appearance of being lost and confused to deceive the opponent into underestimating his abilities, and he retaliates when least expected. The hands and footwork change and flow from each other at will.
Standing Monkey or Tall Monkey is a relatively conventional Monkey Style that likes to keep an upright position and avoid tumbling around. This style is more suited for tall people. Tall Monkey likes to climb body limbs to make attacks at pressure points. It is a long range style.
Crafty Monkey is very deceptive, it uses different faked emotions to lure opponents into attacking. By pretending to be scared for example it lulls the opponent into a false sense of security and waits for the opponents guard to be down, then suddenly attacks when not expected. Those who use Monkey Kung Fu usually wear very bright yellow colored uniforms most often with red trimmings or appliqués. The favorite weapon for Monkey Kung Fu is the staff or stick and standing beside it, the upper end of the staff is normally "eye-height" for the practitioner. There are also other weapons favored by those who use Monkey Kung Fu e.g. the broadsword, straight-sword and the spear as well as the iron ring. Monkey Forms are not normally performed fast paced from start to finish as in other techniques, instead the practitioner will execute a very swift series of movements then stop to "play" (which means to fidget or scratch and it usually involves nervously looking around, picking imaginary fruits or insects from off the legs, arms, ears or head and even the groin area then very quickly eating them or scooping water from an imaginary pond or stream then drinking it). In the Lost Monkey technique, there is a lot of running, nervously looking around, rolling, kicking and punching to the groin area of the opponent. Please note that the running is done in a semi-squatting position and also that a clenched fist is not used in Monkey Kung Fu, instead the fingers are loosely held like a semi-closed fist sometimes referred to as the Monkey Claw. With the exception of the Tall Monkey technique, all Monkey Forms tend to be executed from the squatting and stooping positions. When well executed, Monkey Forms are very comical and generally very entertaining and so tend to attract the most attention at martial arts tournaments."
Snake Kung Fu (Viper): "Snake Kung Fu is said to especially lend itself to applications with the Chinese straight sword. The sinuous, fluid motion of Snake Kung Fu lends itself to the practical theory that underlies the soft martial arts.
Snake Style Kung Fu is based on whipping power which travels up the spine to the fingers. The ability to sinuously move, essentially by compressing one's stomach/abdominal muscles, is very important. Footing is quite grounded. The stancework is fluid in order to maximize the whipping potential of any movement. This necessitates building a strong spine to contain the power and strong fingers to convey the strike. Since breath is important to any movement of the spine and ribs, snake style is considered one of the main styles which eventually led to internal training. Snake Style Kung Fu is also known as an approach to weapons training, the Chinese straight sword and spear in particular.
Snake Style Kung Fu generally aims for weak points of the body, such as eyes, groin and joints."
Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu (Mantis): "Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu is a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis Kung Fu after its province of origin. It was created by Wang Lang () and was named after the praying mantis, the aggressiveness of which inspired the style. One Mantis Kung Fu legend places the creation of the style in the Song Dynasty when Wang Lang was supposedly one of 18 masters gathered by the Abbot Fu Ju, a legendary persona of the historical Abbot Fu Yu (1203-1275), to improve Shaolin martial arts. However, most legends place Wang Lang in the late Ming Dynasty.
Mantis Style Kung Fu involves the use of whip-like/circular motions to deflect direct attacks, which it follows up with precise attacks to the opponent's vital spots. These traits have been subsumed into the Northern Praying Mantis Style, under the rubric of removing something (blocking to create a gap) and adding something (rapid attack).
One of the most distinctive features of Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu is the Praying Mantis Hook (pinyin: tángláng gou): a hook made of one to three fingers directing force in a whip-like manner. The hook may be used to divert force (blocking) or to attack critical spots (eyes or acupuncture points). These are particularly useful in combination, for example using the force imparted from a block to power an attack. So if the enemy punches with the right hand, a Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu practitioner might hook outwards with the left hand (shifting the body to the left) and use the turning force to attack the enemy's neck with a right hook. Alternately, he/she might divert downwards with the left hook and rebound with the left wrist stump to jaw/nose/throat.
Northern Praying Mantis is especially famous for its speed and continuous attacks.
There are many legends surrounding the creation of Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu. One legend attributes the creation of Mantis Kung Fu to the Song Dynasty when Abbot Fu Ju, a legendary persona of the historical Abbot Fu Yu (1203-1275), supposedly invited Wang Lang and seventeen other masters to come and improve the martial arts of Shaolin. The Abbot recorded all of the techniques in a manual called the Secret Hands . Some sources place the folk manuscript's publication on the sixteenth day of the third month of the spring of 1794. The manual records Wang Lang absorbed and equalized all previous techniques learned from the 17 other masters.
Another legend connected to the Song Dynasty states Wang Lang participated in a Lei tai contest in the capital city of Kaifeng and was defeated by General Han Tong, the founder of Tongbeiquan. After leaving the fighting arena, he saw a brave praying mantis attacking the wheels of oncoming carts with its broadsword-like arms, Mantis Kung Fu was born shortly thereafter. However, most legends place Wang Ming living in the late Ming Dynasty.
There are several styles of Northern Praying Mantis Kung Fu, the most famous of which are:
Seven Star Praying Mantis Kung Fu (pinyin: qo xang tángláng quán). This style is the original form of Praying Mantis Kung Fu and is widespread in the Shandong Province and surrounding areas. Luo Guangyu is famous for having passed down this style to Hong Kong and other parts of Southern China, where it is still practiced today. Seven Star is considered by many as the "hardest" of the Praying Mantis styles, however it still utilizes soft-hard principles and is classified as a soft-hard style.
Plum Blossom Praying Mantis Kung Fu. One of the oldest among all Northern Praying Mantis styles, it is widespread in Shandong Province, Jilin, Liaoning and South Korea. It traces its lineage directly from Li Bingxiao (b.1700s) to Zhao Zhu to Liang Xuexiang (1810-1895). Liang Xuexiang was the first master to use the name of Plum Blossom. Liang Xuexiang's disciples, mainly Jiang Hualong, Liang Jingchuan, Sun Yuanchang, Hao Hong and Xiu Kunshan are responsible for popularization of this style in the 20th century. In the early 1900s, it heavily influenced the development of Taiji Mantis of Cui Shoushan and Wang Yushan, Taiji Plum Blossom of Hao Family, Taiji Mantis of Zhao Zhuxi and Babu Mantis of Wei Xiaotang.
Taiji Praying Mantis Kung Fu. Today this style is represented by two distinct lineages. The first one is that of Cui Shoushan and Wang Yushan and is based on Song Zide and Jiang Hualong's Plum Blossom teachings in Laiyang, Shandong Province. It is popular in Laiyang, Yantai, Qingdao, Dalian, North America, Russia, France and Spain. The second lineage can be traced to Sun Yuanchang's Blum Blossom, who was yet another disciple of Liang Xuexiang. Its most famous progenitor is Zhao Zhu Xi, who is said to have taught (both directly and indirectly) thousands of students during his lifetime in Vietnam and Hong Kong, who have since spread to all corners of the globe. He was given the nickname Bamboo Creek, for a famous battle he fought with bandits at that location. This style has since become prevalent in places such as Korea, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and North America.
Taiji Plum Blossom Praying Mantis Kung Fu. This style is, historically, a combination of two different lineages of Mantis: Taiji Mantis and Plum Blossom Mantis. This style is widespread in Yantai, Qingdao, Beijing, Dalian, Harbin, etc. What is now called Taiji Plum Blossom traces its lineage to Hao Lianru, a disciple of Liang Xuexiang, his sons Hao Henglu, Hao Hengxin and his grandson Hao Bin. The later three combined both Taiji Mantis and Plum Blossom in the early 20th Century, creating the current style. Hao Lianru's five sons have since spread the style elsewhere. This style is well-known for its large, two-handed sword, and for being somewhat "softer" than Seven Star Praying Mantis.
Six Harmony Praying Mantis Kung Fu (pinyin: liù hé tángláng quán). Known as the "softest" or most "internal" of the Praying Mantis styles, Six Harmony was passed down by Ding Zicheng, whose students taught in Shandong Province as well as Taiwan. Six Harmony Praying Mantis has a very different curriculum, with unique routines not found in other Praying Mantis styles."
Leopard Kung Fu (Tai Lung): " Leopard Kung Fu was supposedly created by Jueyuan with help from Bai Yufeng and Li Sou. The emphasis of leopard is speed and angular attack. Leopard Kung Fu does not overwhelm or rely on strength, but instead relies on speed and outsmarting its opponent. The power, as in all kung fu forms, comes from a solid stance, but in Leopard Kung Fu it particularly comes from the aggressive speed. The Leopard Kung Fu practitioner will focus on elbows, knees, low kicks, and Leopard Punches.
The goals of Leopard Style Kung Fu are to:
• develop muscle speed for external strength.
• teach patience
• use the Leopard Punch for penetration and lower body springing power.
Leopard Style Kung Fu was founded on the creators' observation of the movements of the leopard. Blocking is wasted in Leopard Kung Fu - the style can be summed up with "Why block when you can hit?". It does not rely on rooted stances, and would only assume a stance while in attack in order to launch at the opponent.
The primary weapon is the Leopard Fist, which can be likened to a half-opened fist. The primary striking surface is the ridge formed by folding the fingers at the first phalangal joint; the secondary striking surface is the palm hand. The Leopard Claw can also be modified for grabbing and tearing by slightly lifting the fingers to form a hook.
An interesting technique of Leopard Kung Fu is the ability to simultaneously block and strike the opponent. This is not commonly used in the harder martial arts (like the other Shaolin styles, for example). Sheer speed is a defining characteristic of the style; however, as with all martial arts of this style, the practitioner's ability to provide the necessary speed diminishes as he ages, reducing his or her efficiency in combat." Edit