Jurassic Park (1993)
This movie and the book generated so much interest in dinosaurs that the study of paleontology has had a record increase in students.
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The T. Rex occasionally malfunctioned, due to the rain. Producer Kathleen Kennedy recalls, "The T. Rex went into the heebie-jeebies sometimes. Scared the crap out of us. We'd be, like, eating lunch, and all of a sudden a T. Rex would come alive. At first we didn't know what was happening, and then we realized it was the rain. You'd hear people start screaming."
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The Tyrannosaurus' roars were a combination of dog, penguin, tiger, alligator, and elephant sounds.
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When Hurricane Iniki hit, the cast and crew were all required to move into the ballroom of the hotel in which they were staying. Sir Richard Attenborough, however, stayed in his hotel room and slept through the entire event. When asked how he could possibly have done this, Attenborough replied, "My dear boy, I survived the blitz!"
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The guests' encounter with the sick Triceratops ends without any clear explanation as to why the animal is sick. Michael Crichton's original novel and the screenplay, however, include an explanation: the Stegosaurus/Triceratops lacked suitable teeth for grinding food, and so, like birds, would swallow rocks and use them as gizzard stones. In the digestive tract, these rocks would grind the food to aid in digestion. After six weeks, the rocks would become too smooth to be useful, and the animal would regurgitate them. When finding and eating new rocks to use, the animal would also swallow West Indian Lilac berries. The fact that the berries and stones are regurgitated explains why Ellie never finds traces of them in the animal's excrement.
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Universal Pictures paid Michael Crichton $2 million for the rights to his novel before it was even published.
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Director Steven Spielberg wanted the velociraptors to be about ten feet tall, which was taller than they were known to be.According to an artist that was involved in pre-production, Spielberg requested this change because he was unhappy with the size of what was considered the largest dromaeosaurid at the time Deinonychus and wanted it to be bigger. Another given reason was that Spielberg thought to make the raptor larger made them more menacing. During filming, paleontologists uncovered ten-foot-tall specimens of raptors called Utahraptors.
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(at around 25 mins) The Mr. DNA cartoon was Steven Spielberg's way of condensing much of the novel's exposition into a few minutes.
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Steven Spielberg wanted the dinosaurs to be birdlike, for example, snapping to attention like a chicken. He wanted the Raptors to turn their heads so they could look behind them to make them have a scarier appearance. Spielberg likened the Raptor tapping its claw to Morse code to any Raptor listening.
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Harrison Ford was offered and turned down the role of Dr. Alan Grant, as he felt that the part just wasn't right for him. After seeing the movie, he says that he had made the right decision.
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John Williams scored the movie at the end of February 1993 and recorded it a month later. He felt he needed to write "pieces that would convey a sense of awe and fascination, given it dealt with the overwhelming happiness and excitement that would emerge from seeing live dinosaurs."
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In 2005, paleontologist Dr. Mary Schweitzer discovered red blood cells and soft tissue in the fossilized bones of a T. Rex, meaning dinosaur cloning may someday become a reality.
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All of the cast were given a Raptor model, signed by director Steven Spielberg as a gift. It looked very frightening, and Ariana Richards has it in her house to shock anyone coming in, like a guard at the gate. Jeff Goldblum's model has a prime spot in his house, and is a cherished object. Laura Dern put her Raptor model in her son's room near his crib. When he was older and saw it he screamed like never before. She had to put it in storage, but hopes one day, the two will be friends.
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(at around 47 mins) While discussing chaos theory, Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) shamelessly flirts with Ellie Sattler (Laura Dern). After meeting on this movie, the two began a romantic relationship, and were engaged for two years before breaking up. Goldblum is famous for striking up relationships with co-stars.
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When Michael Crichton was asked why the novel has "Jurassic" in the title, and has a dinosaur from the Cretaceous period on the cover, he replied that had never occurred to him, and admitted "that was just the best looking design".
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Dennis Muren suggested most of the full size dinosaurs could be done on computer from head to toe, but he had to prove it first to Steven Spielberg, which he did with a skeletal Gallimimus herd running through a field. Spielberg was so blown away by the scene, especially when a fleshy T. Rex arrived on the scene. He and Tippett looked at each other and Tippett said, "I think we're extinct". Spielberg liked the line and gave it to Jeff Goldblum to say to Sam Neill in the Visitor's Center.
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Ariana Richards' audition consisted of standing in front of a camera and screaming wildly. Steven Spielberg "wanted to see how she could show fear." Richards remembers, "I heard later on that Steven had watched a few girls on tape that day, and I was the only one who ended up waking his sleeping wife off the couch, and she came running through the hallway to see if the kids were all right."
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Director Steven Spielberg oversaw the post-production of this movie via video link while in Poland filming the Holocaust-themed Schindler's List (1993). He later called it one of the hardest times in his life as a filmmaker, and it took such an emotional toll on him that his enthusiasm for this movie had almost waned. He said that he needed an hour per day to muster up the energy to comment on digital dinosaurs and answer trivial questions from the special effects crew.
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The Triceratops dung (at around 52 mins) didn't smell at all. It was made of clay, mud, and straw. It was drizzled in honey and papayas so flies would swarm near it.
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The crew had to have safety meetings about the T. Rex. It weighed 12,000 pounds, and was extremely powerful. They used flashing lights to announce when it was about to come on, to alert the crew, because if you stood next to it and the head went by at speed, it felt like a bus going by.
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Steven Spielberg was in the very early stages of pre-production for the movie "ER" (based on a Michael Crichton novel) when he heard about the "Jurassic Park" book. He subsequently dumped what he was doing to make this movie. Afterwards, he returned to "ER" and helped develop it into the hit television series ER (1994).
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Ian ( Jeff Goldblum ) says the line "must go faster" while being chased (at around 1h 20 mins) by a dinosaur. In Independence Day (1996), co-executive producer, co-writer and director Roland Emmerich liked it so much, he had Goldblum say it when he and Will Smith were escaping the mothership.
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There are only fifteen minutes of dinosaur footage in this movie: nine minutes are Stan Winston's animatronics, and six minutes of it is Industrial Light & Magic CGI.
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Steven Spielberg liked the dinosaurs to do behavioral things that had nothing to do with the plot, like stopping to scratch, something he learned on E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982).
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Before the book was published, Michael Crichton demanded a non-negotiable fee of $1.5 million, as well as a substantial percentage of the gross.
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James Cameron has stated that he wanted to make this movie, but the rights were bought "a few hours" before he could bid. Upon seeing this movie, Cameron realized that Spielberg was the better choice to direct it, as his version would've been much more violent ("Aliens (1986) with dinosaurs") which "wouldn't have been fair" to children, who relate to dinosaurs. The visual effects were directly influenced by Cameron's Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991).
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Michael Crichton said that his views on science and genetic engineering are largely expressed by Ian Malcolm. Steven Spielberg saw many parallels to himself in the character of John Hammond. Fittingly, he cast a fellow filmmaker in the role, who begins his tour of the park by showing a movie in which he also acts. While Malcolm is dressed entirely in black, Hammond wears all white.
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This movie opened on Friday, June 11, 1993, and broke box office records its first weekend, with $47 million. It eventually went on to make more than $900 million worldwide. David Koepp remembers the day it opened: "I was in New York and I walked to the Ziegfeld (Theatre) to see how it was doing. The guy comes out and announces to the big line, 'Ladies and gentlemen, the seven o'clock show of Jurassic Park is sold out.' And people go, 'Oooh.' And he goes, 'Also the ten o'clock show is sold out.' And they went, 'Ooooooh.' 'And also Saturday night's seven and ten o'clock shows are also sold out.' And I was like, 'I'm not an expert, but I think this is very good.'"
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After making this movie, Ariana Richards developed a great interest in dinosaurs and assisted Jack Horner, paleontologist, advisor for this movie, and the inspiration for the character of Dr. Grant, on an actual dinosaur dig in Montana the following summer.
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During the scenes with the T. Rex, Steven Spielberg would roar like one through the megaphone. The cast cracked up whenever he did that. Sam Neill stated, "That was kind of more funny than anything, and the acting part was not laughing. It's not easy."
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(at around 1h 3 mins) When the audience first sees the T. Rex, director Steven Spielberg wanted it from inside the SUVs so the audience feels like they're experiencing it right there with the characters and feeling their fear.
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Steven Spielberg received $250 million from this movie's gross and profit participations.
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Michael Crichton estimated that the screenplay has about ten to twenty percent of the novel's content.
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Michael Crichton wrote the novel because of his concern for the rise of scientism, and the exploration of bio-genetics for the sake of profit.
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The most difficult effect to pull off was the vibrating rings of water. Steven Spielberg wanted the T. Rex to announce its presence somehow before the audience saw it, and got the idea from watching the mirror in his car vibrate from the bass effects whilst listening to Earth, Wind and Fire. When Michael Lantieri tried to replicate that with water, it was harder than any of the dinosaur effects. Nobody knew how to do it, but told Spielberg they could. The night before the shoot, Lantieri put a glass of water on a guitar and when he plucked the strings, that did it. So for the scene, they fed guitar strings under the dashboard to get the effect. A man on the floor plucked the strings to achieve the effect.
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Despite his prominent billing, BD Wong has less than two minutes of screentime. He is, however, the only cast member of this movie to reprise his role in Jurassic World (2015). Wong and Jeff Goldblum reprised their roles in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018).
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The sound of the T. Rex's footsteps were created by cut sequoias crashing to the ground.
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Several years after this movie wrapped, it was discovered due to fossil impressions of velociraptor skin that they were (allegedly) feathered, implying that Grant was right, that they shared a common ancestor with birds.
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In this movie, Steven Spielberg directs the man who beat him to the Best Director Oscar in 1983 (Sir Richard Attenborough, whose movie Gandhi (1982) also beat Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) as Best Picture).
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Shortly after Nedry makes his first appearance in the control room (at around 43 mins), during his argument with Hammond, one can clearly see Jaws (1975) playing in a small video window on one of Nedry's computer screens. That movie was, of course, directed by Steven Spielberg and was Spielberg's first experiment with animatronic animals, namely the giant shark they built for the movie.
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Ariana Richards was upset by the fact that an action figure of her character was not produced. (Kenner only made dolls of Grant, Sattler, Muldoon, Nedry, Tim, and eventually Malcolm.)
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The Dilophosaurus' venom-spitting and neck-frill became so iconic that almost every other appearance of the animal in popular media, as well as most of the Dilophosaurus children's toys advertise at least one or both of these aspects. Some even leave out the dinosaur's striking double-crests. In reality, however, the spitting ability was only made up by Michael Crichton, while adding the frill was Steven Spielberg's idea. Real Dilophosauruses possessed neither of these traits, with the twin crests and its thin jaws (the latter of which isn't very evident in the movie's design) being its real discerning features.
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Generally speaking, any shot of a full dinosaur was computer-generated, but shots of parts of dinosaurs were of animatronics.
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(at around 1h 7 mins) Sam Neill injured his hand lighting the flare he uses to distract the Tyrannosaur. According to Neill, "It dropped some burning phosphorous on me and got under my watch and took a chunk of my arm out."
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When the Utahraptor was discovered right before the movie's release, which had a similar height to the Raptors depicted in this movie, Stan Winston joked, "We made it, then they discovered it, that still boggles my mind."
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The novel was published in 1990. However, pre-production of the film began in 1989, using only Michael Crichton's manuscript. It was widely believed that the book would be such a hit that it would make an outstanding movie. It turns out that assumption was correct.
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Grossed $402 million in the U.S., and just over $1 billion worldwide. Steven Spielberg made $250 million from this movie, the largest sum any individual has made from a movie.
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Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum) dresses entirely in black in this movie and The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997). In the book, he tells Ellie Sattler that he only ever dresses in black and gray, so that he never has to waste time thinking about what to wear. Seth Brundle (Jeff Goldblum) gives the same reason for his monotonous fashion sense in The Fly (1986), an idea that Brundle got from Albert Einstein.
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The kitchen scene was Ariana Richards' favorite scene. It was filmed in two weeks with Raptors there most of the time, and a man in a suit some of the time. Anyone in a Raptor suit could only do it for up to fifteen minutes, because they were bent over in a downhill skiing position, which is very physical. The Raptor clicking its toenails was done with a puppeteer walking on Raptor legs.
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After Joseph Mazzello was turned down for the role of Jack Banning in Steven Spielberg's Hook (1991) for being too young, Spielberg told Mazzello that he was still impressed with his audition and would try to cast him in a future project. Mazzello was then cast as Tim in this movie. As Mazzello recalls, "Steven had me screentest with Robin Williams and Dustin Hoffman for Hook (1991). I was just too young for the role. And because of that, Steven came up to me and said, 'Don't worry about it, Joey. I'm going to get you in a movie this summer.' Not only a nice promise to get, but to have it be one of the biggest box-office smashes of all time? That's a pretty good trade." Mazzello's casting led Spielberg to reverse the ages of the children, as he decided that casting a girl younger than Mazzello would be too young to be placed in danger. Lex was therefore made the older child, and the computer expert as well. In Michael Crichton's original novel, Tim is older, and is both the dinosaur and computer enthusiast.
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Joseph Mazzello did the freezer scene (at around 1h 50 mins) on his birthday. The Raptor was on wheels and had to be pushed, and the claws hit Mazzello on the forehead. He fell to the floor dizzy but was okay. Steven Spielberg had the whole crew sing "Happy Birthday", so Mazzello considered it his birthday present.
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The sounds made by the Brachiosaurs were a combination of whale and donkey sounds.
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Paleontologist Robert Bakker was blown away by the movie's dinosaurs. Tim name-checks Bakker when talking to Grant.
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A rattlesnake made the noise of the Dilophosaurus neck rattle, because it was scary to listen to. The cute Dilophosaurus sound was made by the hopping chirps of a swan.
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A baby triceratops was built for a scene where one of the kids rides it. Special effects technicians worked on this effect for a year, but the scene was cut at the last minute, as Steven Spielberg thought it would ruin the pacing of the movie. A similar scene, however, was used in Jurassic World (2015).
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The Dilophosaurus never walks because it was difficult to get the weight shifting and the movement right. A trench was cut into the floor of the set for the puppeteers, but Steven Spielberg elected to have it just appear instead to make the scene more ominous and surprising. He also wanted more water for the scene coming down the hillside with every fire hydrant going in the studio until they ran out. Michael Lantieri joked every now and then "just splash him with something so he feels there's more water". To this day, Spielberg still feels that scene needed more water. Wayne Knight thought it a miserable scene to shoot; sliding down things, covered in mud, soaking wet, he was three hundred twenty-seven pounds, and he could barely walk, but he loved watching it.
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The storm overpowering the park has been read as the movie's theme of trying and failing to control nature.
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Except for some very brief glimpses in the opening scene, the adult velociraptors, often cited as the most memorable dinosaurs in this movie, don't make an on-screen appearance until over one hour and forty-three minutes into the movie.
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The dinosaurs were billed as the most accurate ever created on film.
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(at around 5 mins) When Juanito (Miguel Sandoval) is inspecting the amber encased mosquito at the digsite in the beginning, he says in Spanish, "Qué lindo eres, vas hacer a mucha gente feliz", which in English means, "You are so beautiful, you will make a lot of people happy."
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All of the merchandise (t-shirts, stuffed dinosaurs, lunch boxes, flasks, et cetera) shown in the movie were, in some part, created to be sold with the movie.
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Steven Spielberg delayed the beginning of filming by several weeks to get the cast he wanted. First he allowed Sir Richard Attenborough to finish post-production on Chaplin (1992) before committing to this movie. He also waited until Sam Neill could finish filming Family Pictures (1993). Neill ended up only having a weekend off between finishing that movie and starting this one.
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The T. Rex model was controlled with a waldo, a very small replica to manipulate it to get it to respond exactly. They weren't supposed to get it wet, because it was fine-tuned into how much it weighed, but once they shot the rain scene, it stopped responding. Between takes they had to towel it down to dry it out at night. When it attacked Lex and Tim, it lost some of its teeth on top of the car. They tried gluing them back in, but one refused to after twenty minutes. There's a shot where if you pause it in the right place you can see it's missing a tooth.
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John Hammond (Sir Richard Attenborough) created the dinosaurs from DNA trapped in amber. He also carried around a cane capped with a mosquito in amber. Attenborough's brother is naturalist David Attenborough, who has his own collection of animals trapped in amber. This was the focus of Natural World (1983) season twenty-two, episode twelve, Natural World: The Amber Time Machine (2004).
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The last element to make the dinosaurs real was sound. They had to guess what they sounded like because vocal cords wouldn't survive to the present, so Steven Spielberg instructed Gary Rydstrom to make them sound like animals; real, but big and deep. Rydstrom recorded different animals and then pieced them together. The Dilophosaurus was a swan call with a hawk, a rattlesnake, and a howler monkey. Raptors were dolphins, a walrus, and geese that when blended sounded horrific. These sounds were put onto a computer and then played through a keyboard. Rydstrom's favorite scene was when the T. Rex ate a Gallimimus, and it looks up one last time, either to beg for mercy or just to see what's got him; Rydstrom likened it to a dog playing with a chew-toy. As it happens, the T. Rex and the Gallimimus vocals were performed by Rydstrom's Jack Russell terrier, Buster.
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For the premiere, Steven Spielberg turned up in one of the Jurassic Park tour vehicles. Sam Neill and Jeff Goldblum also attended the premiere.
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Briefly held the box-office record until it was beaten by Titanic (1997).
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Gallimimus means "fowl mimic". Although Grant never answers Lex's question, Gallimimuses were carnivores, but only went after other dinosaur eggs.
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After directing Hook (1991), Steven Spielberg wanted immediately to film Schindler's List (1993). Sid Sheinberg greenlit the film, on the condition that Spielberg make this movie first.
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On September 11, 1992, Hurricane Iniki hit the island of Kauai, delaying production. The crew were caught in the very dangerous hurricane, but the filmmakers nevertheless managed to capture shots from the hurricane and used them in the movie (Steven Spielberg convinced Dean Cundey to shoot footage of it before being locked into the hotel ballroom). Many of the crew helped in the clean-up. This incident was the subject of a 2009 episode of The Weather Channel series Storm Stories (2003).
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During the kitchen scene (at around 1h 50 mins), it may seem convenient for Tim that the freezer door is already open, and there is ice on the floor that causes the Raptor to slip. However, it actually makes perfect sense, and shows considerable attention to detail. Since the power had been cut off the night before, the freezer would slowly start to defrost. John Hammond knew this, and it is why he can be seen eating ice cream during his conversation with Ellie Sattler, as he knew it would spoil otherwise. He probably left the freezer door wide open, since there was no power anyway, causing the ice in the freezer to melt away quicker, and form chunks of melting ice on the freezer floor. When Sattler later turns the power back on, this would cause the chunks on the floor to re-freeze, and make the surface very slippery.
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(at around 1h 40 mins) Laura Dern was crying for real and was genuinely frightened in the scene which Ellie (Dern) encounters the raptor in the maintenance shed scene. Because the way the shot had been constructed genuinely terrified her.
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The Dilophosaurus spit (at around 1h 13 mins) used a paintball mechanism that actually spat from the model's mouth; the venom was made out of methacryl and KY Jelly, with some food coloring mixed in.
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Michael Crichton wrote the novel in 1990, but he first got the idea in 1981. Crichton wasn't sure how to plausibly bring dinosaurs back to life until he learned about insects in amber preserving their DNA, which was the breakthrough he had been looking for. He later learned the idea is hypothetically possible. A weevil, containing dinosaur blood from more than sixty-five million years ago was discovered in amber. But DNA quickly breaks down in an insect, which is why Jurassic Park's dinosaurs are more fictional.
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Phil Tippett became quite depressed when he learned that none of the stop-motion creatures he had been developing would be used in the movie. However, shortly after that decision had been made, Industrial Light & Magic animators discovered they did actually have a use for him. While none of his stop-motion models would be seen in the movie, his techniques were determined to be quite useful in animating the computer-generated dinosaurs, especially given how much research he had put into animal movement. Rather than creating the dinosaur motion using key-frame animation, it was decided to build a stop-motion armature for each computer generated dinosaur and manipulate it as they would for a stop-motion movie. These armatures were specially built with motion-sensors, and linked up to the animated dinosaurs being created on the computer. Thus, the motion of the stop-motion armature was directly translated into the computer-generated version that appears in the final movie.
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The electric SUVs in this movie are Ford Explorers, but in the novel, they were Toyotas; Steven Spielberg managed to get seven for the movie. The Explorers were modified to create the illusion of automation by hiding the driver in the cargo compartment. The Jeeps were also customized for the shoot. Universal Studios Japan has a replica of one of the Ford Explorers from this movie.
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During the Jell-O eating scene (at around 1h 45 mins) with Lex and Tim eating sweets, fruits, and desserts, a crew member held Ariana Richards' elbow and shook her arm to add to her character's terror. She (Richards) asked if she could do it, but they didn't think she'd be able to pull it off in a believable way.
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Dr. Alan Grant was modelled after paleontologist Jack Horner who, like Grant, digs and teaches in Montana, and was also a technical advisor on this movie.
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(at around 1h 20 mins) The T. Rex chasing the Jeep took some engineering. Paleontologists alleged a T. Rex could run up to fifty miles per hour. But the model was too big to run that fast, and its bones couldn't support its weight. So they dialed it down to a more acceptable twenty-five miles per hour. Hammond says it can go thirty-two miles per hour (at around 21 mins).
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According to Fandango, it would cost approximately $23,432,400,000 to build a real-life Jurassic Park (in 2015 U.S. dollars): $1.5 billion - the cost for the park itself. $10 billion - to purchase an island off the coast of Costa Rica with sixty-six square miles of land (twenty-two square miles for Isla Nublar and forty-four square miles for Isla Sorna). $8 million - research and legal team. $9 million - harvesting dinosaur DNA. $8.5 million - overhead to clone dinosaurs from the DNA. $11 billion a year ($32 million per day) - employee payroll and operations budget. $200 million a year - dinosaur food budget. In total, the estimated yearly operating expenses for Jurassic Park add up to approximately $11.9 billion.
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Steven Spielberg's most commercially successful movie.
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Many errors were corrected digitally: some stunt people were made to look like the actors and actresses, and in one scene, an entire Ford Explorer was digitally generated.
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In the 3-D version, Steven Spielberg claimed adding leaves to the Jeep chase took the excitement from a seven to a nine.
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Two scenes from the book were removed from this movie: an opening sequence with Procompsognathus (Compies) attacking children, because Steven Spielberg deemed it too horrific, and for budget reasons, a sequence with the T. Rex chasing Grant and the children downriver, before being tranquilized by Muldoon. Both sequences were re-worked for the sequels.
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The sick triceratops was designed with a very colorful pattern on its skin. Once the creature was brought on-location, however, Stan Winston decided that, to be realistic, the animal should be covered with dirt from its surrounding environment.
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Before Steven Spielberg decided to use animatronic dinosaurs and computer graphics imagery, he wanted to use stop motion animation for the dinosaur effects and had Phil Tippett put together a short demo of the kitchen scene using claymation dinosaurs (Barbie dolls were substituted for the actual actors).
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Jeff Goldblum regretted that he never got to do any scenes with the adult Raptors until The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), although he thought the baby Raptor was more creepy than cute.
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Michael Crichton's agents circulated the book to six studios and directors. Warner Bros. wanted it for Tim Burton to direct, while Columbia Pictures was planning it for Richard Donner. 20th Century Fox was also interested, and was intending the project for Joe Dante, while Universal Pictures wanted Steven Spielberg to direct. Crichton was reluctant to submit to a bidding war. He instructed his agents to put a set price on the film rights and he could decide who was more likely to actually get the film made. After interviewing all of the prospective directors, he agreed to sell the rights to Universal and Steven Spielberg, who was already his first choice.
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Steven Spielberg changed the climax a few weeks before the end of the shoot. He felt the audience would hate him if the T. Rex doesn't make one final heroic appearance, since he considered the T. Rex the star of the movie, hence the Raptor and T. Rex fight. The original climax involved the Raptors being killed by the T. Rex skeleton in the Visitors Center. The new climax was completely computer animated unlike the first T. Rex attack. First, they enacted it, and then added in the effects. It was the last scene to be filmed.
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Steven Spielberg wanted the T. Rex's roar to sound like a "King Kong" roar, particularly at the climax. King Kong (1933) was one of Spielberg's biggest influences when making this movie.
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(at around 1h 29 mins) When Grant feeds the Brachiosaur, the head was twelve feet high, on a dolly, so it could move in on wheels, and the actors and actress would have something to which to react. The Brachiosaur snot was methacryl; Steven Spielberg insisted it be green, if it has a cold. Ariana Richards gets asked about that scene in every Jurassic Park interview; she refuses to talk about it anymore. To create the sound of the sneeze, sound designer Gary Rydstrom used the combination of a whale's blowhole and a fire hose turning on from the Skywalker Ranch Fire Department. For the singing, he slowed down a donkey yodel, and stretched it out into a song.
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Was selected for preservation in the National Film Registy by the Library of Congress, in 2018 for being culturally, historically or aesthetically significant.
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(at around 23 mins) Dr. Malcolm's quip that Sattler's and Grant's jobs are extinct is quoted from what puppeteer Phil Tippett said to Steven Spielberg when he decided to use CGI and not Go-Motion. Spielberg had it put in this movie as a joke.
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After the twin hits of Jurassic Park and Schindler's List (1993), Steven Spielberg took a rare sabbatical. It was four years before he returned to the director's chair with The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997).
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(at around 13 mins) The scene between Nedry and Dodgson has spawned a cult following; there are fan re-creations on YouTube and Electro Tunes sampling the line "We've got Dodgson here!" There are even t-shirts with Dodgson's face on it. Cameron Thor auditioned for the part of Ian Malcolm, but got the much smaller part of Lewis Dodgson. Thor was the one who tracked down the shaving can, for use in the movie. He had to spend endless time in a drug store to find the most photogenic can. He even used it after the audition, because he was so broke. Thor has said he would happily reprise the role at any time, because it's the character for which he's most recognized.
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Scenes of the T. Rex attacking Grant and the kids, while they ride down a river and through a running waterfall, were cut before filming.
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This movie revolutionized dinosaur behavior; whereas in previous movies they were slow moving, they were now fast and athletic. This derived from paleontologist Robert Bakker. Another aspect included was dinosaurs are not cold-blooded, but rely on the Sun to be active. Steven Spielberg wanted his dinosaurs to be fast-moving, warm-blooded predators, for example, if a T. Rex in the rain were cold-blooded, it couldn't do anything, hence the scene in the movie.
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Began principal photography on the island of Kauai in August 1992, two years and one month after pre-production. The lush resort made it an ideal setting, but after three weeks filming, Hurricane Iniki came to Kauai, and the crew were asked by the hotel to pack their suitcases, fill their bathtubs in case of a power or water shortage, and to pack a day bag and meet in the hotel ballroom, on the basement level. By 9:00 a.m., the storm hit. Kathleen Kennedy ensured the movie crew had generators for lights and plenty of food and water. They had to be self-sustaining because they moved around on-location all the time. They had to camp out in rows of chaise longues on the ballroom floor, while the cast and crew heard winds pick up at 4:00 p.m., and rumble by the hotel at nearly one hundred twenty miles per hour. Kennedy likened it to a freight train roaring past. Iniki struck all the sets, leaving no working phones or power on Kauai, so at dawn, Kennedy jogged to the airport to explore their options, where all the windows were blown out in the terminals, and it was full of palm trees, sand, and water. Kennedy hitched a lift to Honolulu on a Salvation Army plane and began organizing from a pay phone. Over twenty-four hours, she coordinated the safe return of the company, and arranged for more than twenty thousand pounds of relief supplies transported from Honolulu and Los Angeles into Kauai. After returning to Los Angeles, this movie resumed production at Universal Studios.
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In the original script, the T. Rex skeleton in the lobby was hooked up to pulleys like a giant marionette. In the ending, Grant was going to man the controls and act as puppeteer, using the skeleton's head and feet to crush the raptors.
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Sir Sean Connery was offered the role of John Hammond based on his performance as Professor Henry Jones, Sr. in Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989). He turned it down.
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(at around 20 mins) Laura Dern thought the first scene with the Brachiosaur was very tender. She recalled shooting the scene, where the actors were looking at an X on a piece of paper. Grant loses the power in his legs because Sam Neill thought seeing something so mind boggling would make you faint. When Steven Spielberg first edited the scene, the temp music was the St. Crispin's Day speech from Sir Kenneth Branagh's Henry V (1989). Phil Tippett thought it perfect and said "you did it, you crazy son of a bitch", not knowing that was a line from the movie.
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Real Velociraptors were actually barely 1.6 feet tall, much smaller than the ones depicted in the movie. Shortly after the movie release, a dinosaur was discovered in Utah that was almost identical to the Velociraptor in the movie. Although the idea was finally scrapped, one of the proposed names for the new species was "Utahraptor spielbergi".
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(at around 31 mins) "Life finds a way" is Jeff Goldblum's favorite line.
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Jurassic Park's first television broadcast was on May 7, 1995, following the April 26th airing of The Making of 'Jurassic Park' (1995). 68.12 million people tuned in to watch, garnering NBC a thirty-six percent share of all available viewers that night. This movie was the highest-rated theatrical film broadcast by any network, since the April 1987 airing of Trading Places (1983).
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It was while supervising post-production on this movie that George Lucas decided that technology was good enough to begin work on the Star Wars prequels. Appropriately, Samuel L. Jackson was able to appear in those movies as well.
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(at around 13 mins) As the movie was released in Costa Rica, local theater owners scratched/blurred the San Jose tag during the scene when Nedry waits for his contact in what supposedly was the country's capital, because the local audiences reacted negatively to inaccuracies in the scene's geography.
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In the book, the sick animal is a Stegosaurus, said by Ian Malcolm to be sick because the Jurassic era air had more oxygen than the Holocene, part of the chaos theory.
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(at around 1h 35 mins) For the part where the T-Rex catches a Gallimimus and shakes it in her mouth, the sound was taken from sound designer Gary Rydstroms Jack Russell terrier shaking a toy in its mouth.
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The gun that game warden Muldoon uses is an Italian Franchi SPAS 12, a commonly used gun in films due to its aesthetic modern appearance. Steven Spielberg kept the gun after the production ended. It is part of his very large, private gun collection, and he had many of the stars sign it. When he invites guests to his home in Beverly Hills, he lets them shoot it.
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The highest-grossing film of 1993. It outdid Steven Spielberg's own E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) as the then biggest box-office success in film history (not adjusted for inflation). It would hold that record until Titanic (1997), and then James Cameron would also outperform himself with the release of Avatar (2009).
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The Brachiosaurus scene was the second dinosaur scene with the actors and actresses, and took a long time to film, because Sam Neill and Laura Dern had to react to nothing most of the time, and Steven Spielberg was coming up with new shots on the spot.
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Michael Crichton was delighted to be writing the screenplay, as was his custom, but it was one of Steven Spielberg's customs to bring in other writers, which he did, when he hired David Koepp to write the final draft.
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Jim Carrey was considered for the role of Ian Malcolm.
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BD Wong auditioned using pages from the novel, as the script had not been finished yet. As such, he expected Dr. Wu to play as prominent a role in this movie. He didn't find out until production had started that he was only needed for one day.
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The scene where Grant, Tim, and Lex meet the herd of Gallimimuses was scheduled to be the last scene shot in Kauai. When Hurricane Iniki hit, filming for this scene had to be postponed. Production returned to California and then, a few weeks later, Sam Neill, Joseph Mazzello, and Ariana Richards had to travel back to Hawaii, but this time to the island of Oahu, to shoot the scene.
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When Steven Spielberg first started working for Universal Pictures, he was asked to give a tour to a special guest who had just sold the rights to one of his books to the studio. The guest turned out to be Michael Crichton, who later sold the film rights for another novel to Universal that Spielberg wound up directing, Jurassic Park. The two later became friends, because he claimed Crichton knew how to blend science with big theatrical concepts.
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(at around 1h 5 mins) When the T. Rex turned at the sound of the doorslam, Steven Spielberg wanted a quick turn because "slow isn't scary".
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Sandra Bullock, Gwyneth Paltrow, Julianne Moore, Helen Hunt, Teri Hatcher, Elizabeth Hurley, and Sherilyn Fenn tested for the role of Ellie Sattler. Julianne Moore played Dr. Sarah Harding in The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997).
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The Triceratops scene was a major operation. Most of the dinosaur scenes were shot on soundstages, but Steven Spielberg wanted this scene shot on-location in Hawaii. The puppeteers loved this decision because the dust and the dirt tied it into the environment. It was also the first dinosaur the actors and actresses saw. They were blown away by its realism. Stan Winston's team dug a hole beneath the puppet and eight puppeteers below operated cables and push-rods. The backside of the Triceratops had a door with three or four men inside. The only one of the actors not impressed was Joseph Mazzello, because the first dinosaur he got to see up close didn't do anything. To get the Triceratops to breathe, Gary Rydstrom blew into a toy called a "zube tube" to add the harmonics.
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Wrapped twelve days ahead of schedule, but there was still a lot of work to be done. Steven Spielberg then worked with Michael Kahn to edit the movie, before any dinosaurs were added. They trimmed the movie for weeks, wanting Jurassic Park (1993) to look great without the dinosaurs, before they were added, which would make the movie even greater.
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The full-sized animatron of the Tyrannosaurus Rex weighed about 13,000 to 15,000 pounds. During the shooting of the initial T. Rex attack scene that took place in a downpour and was shot on a soundstage, the latex that covered the T. Rex puppet absorbed great amounts of water, making it much heavier and harder to control. Technicians worked throughout the night with blow driers trying to dry the latex out. Eventually, they suspended a platform above the T. Rex, out of camera range, to keep the water off of it during filming.
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Director Steven Spielberg was worried that computer graphics meant Nintendo type cartoon quality. He originally only wanted the herd of gallimimus dinosaurs to be computer-generated, but upon seeing Industrial Light & Magic's demo animation of a T. Rex chasing a herd of galamides across his ranch, he decided to shoot nearly all the dinosaur scenes using this method. The animation was first plotted on an Amiga Toaster, and rendered for the film by Silicon Graphics' Indigo workstations.
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(at around 22 mins) "Welcome to Jurassic Park" was Sir Richard Attenborough's favorite line.
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When the survivors are crawling through vent spaces (at around 1h 55 mins), the computer monitors are shining on the Raptor after them. This is usually mistaken as being the shadows from the air vents. It's the letters GATC, the four letters used to denote the components of DNA.
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To emphasize the birdlike qualities of the Gallimimus, the animation focused on the herd of them, instead of individually. To prepare for the scene, the animators ran through an Industrial Light & Magic parking lot, with plastic pipes standing in for the tree they vaulted over in the movie. One of the animators missed the jump and fell over, something that was incorporated into the scene. The sounds of the Gallimimuses were horse squeals.
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On the last night of filming, cast and crew lifted their glasses in a champagne toast and the weary, but enthusiastic Steven Spielberg announced that this movie, after two years in planning, and four months before the cameras, finished on budget, and twelve days ahead of schedule.
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The sounds the Velociraptors make when communicating is the same sound tortoises make when having sex.
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David Koepp trimmed much of the characters' excessive details, because he felt that whenever they started talking about their personal lives, he couldn't care less, and neither would the audience. He instead substituted individual moments like Malcolm flirting with Ellie, making Grant jealous, or Lex's adolescent crush on Grant, who fails to notice.
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The T. Rex chasing the Jeep was changed by Steven Spielberg from a scene with them just driving away at the sound of the T. Rex's footsteps.
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When Nedry is stealing the dinosaur embryos, there is one labelled a Brontosaurus. Brontosaurus was not a real dinosaur, but one named by a paleontologist that had the wrong skull on his specimen. The correct skull for the animal was found by a different scientist, and it was then called the Apatosaurus.
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There were so many wires and rigging to control the velociraptor animatrons in the kitchen stalking scene that the children had to literally step over and around them while the scene was being filmed. The kitchen set was greatly expanded from the original design to accommodate the velociraptors. Some reports say that all of the dinosaurs in the kitchen scene were computer-generated.
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A study by Western Australia's Murdoch University concluded that DNA cannot survive more than 6.8 million years, a finding that effectively rules out the film's method of replicating dinosaurs. The new study, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B in 2012, was based on carbon-dating bones from the moa, an extinct New Zealand bird. The researchers found that the DNA from the bones halved after about five hundred twenty-one years when stored at 13.1 degrees. At minus five degrees, the final fragments of DNA in a bone would disappear after 6.8 million years.
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(at around 1h 20 mins) The T. Rex chasing the Jeep was the most difficult scene to animate. Steve 'Spaz' Williams had to do research because there's no frame of reference for a running animal of that size. It took two months to figure out how to get it to run, for instance. He would run the sequence backwards to see all of the mistakes. They were also able to use the computer to add little details to authenticate the scene, for example, the T. Rex running through puddles of water and leaving splashes, et cetera. The splashing was filmed individually, and then the computer added it to the T. Rex's footsteps.
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The original idea for Jurassic Park came from Michael Crichton's attempt in 1983 to write a screenplay about a Pterodactyl being cloned from an egg. The screenplay and movie never came to fruition. Originally, Crichton's novel was rejected by his "people", a group of about five or six personal acquaintances, who always read his drafts before he sends them off. After several rejections, Crichton finally figured out what was wrong: he had originally intended for the story to be through the eyes of a child who was at the park when the dinosaurs escaped, which his peers felt was too ridiculous, and could not identify with the character. Crichton re-wrote the story as it is today, and it became a huge hit. (The story also incorporates the "amusement park run amok" element of Crichton's earlier screenplay Westworld (1973).)
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In the original script, Gennaro and Malcolm were combined into one character, and Muldoon survived in the end. In the book, Gennaro and Muldoon survived, and Hammond and Malcolm died (though Malcolm returned in the book "The Lost World" by Michael Crichton, explaining that "The doctors did excellent work.").
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The casting process was fairly easy. Sir Richard Attenborough was the last to be cast. Attenborough hadn't acted since 1979. Attenborough knew Steven Spielberg was the perfect director for the material after reading the novel.
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The raptors in the kitchen scene was filmed on Joseph Mazzello's ninth birthday. Due to a misunderstanding, Joseph ran into one of the raptors on one of the takes, and was injured.
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James Cameron said in an interview he wanted to do the movie with Arnold Schwarzenegger as Grant, Bill Paxton as Malcolm, and Charlton Heston as Hammond.
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The tagline "An Adventure 65 Million Years in the Making" derived from a joke Steven Spielberg made about the thousands of years the mosquito was trapped in amber before being discovered.
To film the scene when the T. Rex ate a Gallimimus, a man waved a long stick with a drawing of a T. Rex head at the end of it. Joseph Mazzello thought it looked amateurish, more like a child's drawing. It made him think of Dr. Ian Malcolm's line "Uh, now eventually you do plan to have dinosaurs, on your dinosaur tour, right?"
(at around 3 mins) When Juanito is meeting Gennaro at the beginning when Gennaro is on the raft Juanito says in Spanish "Apuesto mil pesos que se cae" which means in English "I bet a thousand pesos he falls off".
As of April 2015, the Brontosaurus officially does exist. Researchers from the U.K. and Portugal, analyzed a wealth of evidence, and determined that there is enough variation between the fossils to warrant a separate classification.
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Grant fashioning a functioning seat belt (at around 17 mins) with only two latches and no latch plate foreshadows a later scene where the dinosaurs are suddenly able to breed, despite that they were all originally female.
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To give the 1993 Ford Explorer XLTs the appearance that they were driverless and were running on an electric track, the SUVs were driven by remote from the rear cargo area of the vehicle. The driver was hidden under the Ford Explorer's cargo canvas, which was always pulled closed during filming. To see where to steer the SUV, the driver watched a small television that was fed outside images via two cameras. One camera was mounted on the dash in front of the steering wheel, and the other was mounted on the lower center portion of the front bumper, above a black box. Both cameras can be clearly seen in the movie several times.
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(at around 1h 23 mins) Steven Spielberg wanted the dinosaurs portrayed as animals and not monsters, hence Grant's line to Lex. Paleontologists were brought in to do that, like Jack Horner and Robert Bakker, two of the world's foremost dinosaur experts. Horner vetoed an idea that Raptors had snake tongues because that would sabotage his theory that they're related to birds.
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The sounds made by the Dilophosaurus were a combination of the sounds of howler monkeys, hawks, rattlesnakes, and swans. The main cry of the Velicoraptors was a combination of the sounds of elephant seal pups, dolphins and walruses. The elephant seal sounds were recorded at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, a marine mammal hospital that rehabilitates and releases sick and injured seals and sea lions.
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The Velociraptors and Deinonychus share the same attributes in the movie allegedly because Michael Crichton got them mixed up in the novel.
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(at around 1h 40 mins) After Malcolm snatches the radio off of Hammond, and gives Ellie directions on how to get to the power box, Jeff Goldblum doesn't have any more dialogue from that point on.
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(at around 10 mins) Newspaper clippings on the fridge in Grant's trailer read "Space Aliens Stole My Face" and "Dinosaurs On Mars!"
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This is the movie that inspired BBC's Tim Haines to produce the groundbreaking dinosaur documentary series Walking with Dinosaurs (1999) and its various follow-ups. But it also made his and the animators' job at Framestore harder, as people have already had an idea of what dinosaurs "should" look and move like.
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(at around 1h 25 mins) Perhaps to increase the general sense of anxiety (if only subconsciously), the Triceratops mural behind Hammond as he eats ice cream in the visitors center also incorporates elements from "Guernica", Pablo Picasso's famous painting of the horrors of war.
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Sir Richard Attenborough plays Joseph Mazzello's grandfather. He subsequently cast Mazzello in Shadowlands (1993).
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No one knew what the Raptors sounded like, so to get an interesting sound, they recorded a young dolphin in heat, recorded underwater; it put him in a certain mood and made a wonderful scream, not at all like a dolphin. When Muldoon was hissed at, that was an agitated goose.
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While subtle, Nedry's hillside spill during the dilophosaurus sequence (at around 1h 11 mins) is accompanied by a cartoonish "slide whistle" sound.
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(at around 28 mins) According to Foley artist Dennie Thorpe, the sounds of the hatching baby dinosaurs were created by a combination of crushing ice cream cones (egg shell breaking), squishing cantaloupe melon halves (embryonic emergence), goo-smeared pineapple skin (baby dinosaur flesh cleansing).
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For Film Review's 55th anniversary in 2005, it declared this movie one of the five most important in the magazine's lifetime.
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Dr. Wu, in the movie and the novel, seems unaware of the implications of what he's created. Scientists in Michael Crichton novels are often ignorant of the consequences of what they create.
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(at around 8 mins) When Dr. Grant is talking to the boy in the beginning of the movie, there is a dinosaur's head depicted on the mountain in the back.
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Fred Sorenson was the pilot who flew the crew off Kauai when the hurricane hit during production. He played Jock, the pilot who flew Indiana Jones away in the opening scene of Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981), also directed by Steven Spielberg.
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The best dinosaur movies in the past were done with stop-motion photography, but Steven Spielberg wanted to push the effects envelope. After interviewing every effects shop in town, a cadre of effects people were assembled. Stan Winston created the live-action dinosaurs, which were to be quick, mobile, full-size animals. Winston broke Jurassic Park into three phases; research, design and construction. Winston's team spent a year on research, consulting with paleontologists, museums and hundreds of texts. His artists prepared detailed sketches and renderings, that later led to 1/5th scale sculptures and the twenty-foot T. Rex.
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(at around 40 mins) When getting an update on a storm, Hammond says "Why didn't I build in Orlando?" The distributor, Universal Studios, has two theme parks there. One of them, Islands of Adventure, has a Jurassic Park themed area and rides.
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(at around 29 mins) In the egg-hatching scene, a newborn baby triceratops was originally supposed to come out of the egg, but it was changed to a velociraptor.
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Classic giant monster films like King Kong (1933) and Godzilla (1954) were major influences on Steven Spielberg and the main reason why he wanted to direct it. Spielberg payed homage to Kong in the film with Dr. Ian Malcolm uttering "What have they got in there? King Kong?" Also, after seeing the Kong puppet on the Universal Studios tour, Spielberg asked the designer to apply the same principles to this movie's dinosaurs, for example, smoothness, muscle tone, et cetera. In the Making of Jurassic Park book, Spielberg described how King of the Monsters version of Godzilla was an influence stating, "Godzilla, of course, was the most masterful of all the dinosaur movies because it made you believe it was really happening".
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A large photo of J. Robert Oppenheimer (one of the scientists who created the atomic bomb) is displayed on Dennis Nedry's workstation.
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There is a whole subplot in the novel regarding Dennis Nedry and his reason for betraying the park. In the book, Nedry is not Hammond's employee, but subcontracted by him to create the park's security system. When Hammond cheats on Nedry's pay, Nedry tries to sue, but Hammond instead creates a smear campaign making Nedry lose customers. In the end, he is forced to work for Hammond for a fraction of his pay. The company Nedry was selling the embryos was also trying to clone dinosaurs, but were way behind In-Gen, so Nedry's move was sort of payback. In the end, the filmmakers decided not to include that plot, since it would create sympathy for Nedry and his rather gruesome death.
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Steven Spielberg remained in contact with Industrial Light & Magic while he was in Poland filming Schindler's List (1993) through teleconferences four times a week. He described the extra workload as "a bipolar experience, with every ounce of intuition on Schindler's List, and every ounce of craft on Jurassic Park". He rented two satellite channels through a Polish television station (for $1.5 million a week) and kept them open at all times, and downloaded, from Hollywood each day, the visuals on one, and the sound through the other. He then spent evenings and weekends working on them with video equipment.
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The first movie to use DTS (now Datasat) digital surround sound.
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To study the movement of the Gallimimus herd, the digital artists were ordered to run along a stretch of road with some obstacles, their hands next to their chest.
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(at around 1h 25 mins) In the shots of the gift shop, clearly visible, is a book titled "The Making of Jurassic Park" by Don Shay and Jody Duncan. An actual book with that title and those authors (but a different cover) was published; it was the official behind-the-scenes story of how this movie was made. Jody Duncan also wrote the making-of book for The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997).
Steven Spielberg wanted the dinosaurs to breathe in and out, pulsing visibly, and the eyes to dilate like on E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) because it made them more real, and was also scary to see.
This movie had perhaps the most rigorous marketing campaign ever conducted for a movie, up to that point, costing up to $65 million, including licensing deals with 100 companies to market 1,000 products. Merchandise with the Jurassic Park name on it included toy dinosaurs, calendars, "Making-of" books, action figures, bread, yogurt, fast food, video games, a deal with McDonald's for "Dino-sized meals", a junior novelization, comic books, a Jurassic Park Discovery Centre at Islands of Adventure, shirts, et cetera. Although this led to a somewhat blasé reaction when the movie premiered, the marketing turned Jurassic Park into a box office phenomenon, and toppled E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), previously Steven Spielberg's most commercially successful movie. It's said the marketing cost more, and made more, than the movie did, setting a new record for tie-ins, over 1,000 individual deals that generated over $1 billion in revenue.
Although his character is opposed to it, Jeff Goldblum thinks a dinosaur safari park is a cool idea.
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Was followed by two sequels within ten years after its release. There were plans for a fourth movie, but they were immediately scrapped in late 2008, after the death of Michael Crichton. However, in 2012, they eventually did decide to set things into motion, and Jurassic World (2015) was finally released in 2015.
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The Brachiosaurs chewing food (something they never did really) was added to make them seem more docile, like a cow chewing her cud. Also, they had limited vocal capabilities, but were given whale song, donkey calls, and penguin noises to make them sound melodic.
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The Triceratops is Grant's favorite dinosaur, and it was also Steven Spielberg's because "three horns are better than one".
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As the story takes place on an island near Costa Rica, the filmmakers originally considered filming in Costa Rica. This idea was quickly abandoned when they realized that the Costa Rican government would not allow them to build roads to get to their filming locations.
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Sets were constructed on five of Universal's largest soundstages and one enormous Warner Brothers stage.
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In reality, Dilophosaurus actually measured around seven meters (twenty-three feet) long, and weighed close to five hundred kilograms (one thousand one hundred pounds). In addition to making it venomous, and adding a neck frill, Steven Spielberg also reduced the size of Dilophosaurus to .91 meters (three feet) tall, and one and a half meters (five feet) long, so viewers wouldn't confuse it with the Velociraptors.
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Steven Spielberg considered Richard Dreyfuss, who starred in his Jaws (1975) and Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977), for the role of Dr. Alan Grant.
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Although this movie managed to outperform E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982), as the most successful movie worldwide in history, it did not top E.T.'s gross in North America.
The roar of the Tyrannosaurus Rex has been used for most monsters ever since this movie's release, as it signifies a large animal's large lungs.
Steven Spielberg wanted Judith Barsi for the role of Lex. He'd previously worked with her on The Land Before Time (1988). He was shocked to discover unfortunately that she'd been murdered in 1988 by her own father.
Robin Wright was offered the role of Dr. Ellie Sattler.
Much of the behavior seen in the movie is based on modern wild animals, since little is known of the actual behavior of dinosaurs.
Steven Spielberg didn't want people to be constantly reminded that what they're seeing is CGI, but real, full-blooded dinosaurs, starting with the Brachiosaur scene, where Spielberg was keen on the dinosaur interacting with the background, and would offer suggestions to the animators on how to make it better. The second scene done in that same vein was the Gallimimus scene, which made use of twenty-five animated individual Gallimimuses. Geometric shapes represented them initially and were choreographed into the scene. Spielberg needed complete freedom to convey the energy of the scene, so he worked with Dennis Muren to shoot it, because he wanted to move the camera and not lock it down everytime a Gallimimus came into frame. The scene was shot gradually with Sam Neill, Joseph Mazzello, and Ariana Richards running through a field by themselves. A grid was placed over the ground as a frame to chart the movement of the camera by computer, using what looked like golf balls whenever an actor or actress looked somewhere. The dinosaurs were added later.
(at around 25 mins) The Mr. DNA film was created by Bob Kurtz. Steven Spielberg wanted one of those creaky instructional animations from school to deliver the exposition about dinosaurs being created to the audience. Kurtz feared Mr. DNA was too corny, and the audience wouldn't buy the dinosaurs, but Spielberg thought it should be a little corny. The Brontosaurus at the end of it is a tribute to Winsor McCay's Gertie the Dinosaur (1914), but most of it wound up on the cutting room floor. Kurtz created similar sequences in City Slickers (1991) and Honeymoon in Vegas (1992), as well as a singing cereal packet for Minority Report (2002), and a trailer for Casper (1995).
(at around 35 mins) Malcolm's speech to Hammond about the dangers of Jurassic Park are condensed from the novel: "Scientific power is like inherited wealth: attained without discipline. You read what others have done, and you take the next step. You can do it very young. You can make progress very fast. There is no discipline lasting many decades. There is no mastery: old scientists are ignored. There is no humility before nature. There is only a get-rich-quick, make-a-name-for-yourself-fast philosophy. Cheat, lie, falsify, it doesn't matter. Not to you, nor to your colleagues. No one will criticize you. No one has any standards." This may have been edited by the movie to make Malcolm seem less arrogant.
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Steven Spielberg studied the effects sequences on Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), The Abyss (1989), and Young Sherlock Holmes (1985) to help prep him for work on this movie.
In 1993, over fifty CGI dinosaur effects had to be added, an unprecedented number at that time, calling upon the most powerful computers at Industrial Light & Magic (they took up three rooms). They went through millions of cycles, and the animators had to deliver dinosaur performances. Phil Tippett had the animators mime like dinosaurs to convey them better on-screen. Tippett also had the animators design a dinosaur input device to translate movements to the dinosaurs on-screen. Real animal movements were studied too, like iguanas, giraffes, rhinos, crocodiles, elephants, and ostriches were incorporated.
Shooting Grant rescuing Tim out of the tree involved a fifty-foot prop with hydraulic wheels.
(at around 1h 13 mins) The dilophosaurus' venom was originally to be pale green. However, the combination of studio set lights and artificial rain rendered it nearly invisible on film, so it had to be darkened.
Brachiosaurus is the only dinosaur to be given a possible maximum age. The encyclopedia included with DVD of this movie puts their age at a maximum of two hundred years.
Donald Gennaro makes a small appearance in 'Weird Al' Yankovic: Jurassic Park (1993) claymation music video. He is reading a newspaper in the bathroom, when the Tyrannosaurus Rex appears and eats him (then proceeds to drink a cup of tea and floss). In regards to the dinosaur eating the lawyer, the song includes the line "Well, I suppose that proves they're really not all bad."
BioSyn is InGen's genetics rival in the novel.
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The T. Rex's visual acuity based on movement (which is true of most animals) was not entirely right in the movie. It still had an incredible sense of smell and would have sniffed out its prey if not for a sinus infection, in the movie allegedly. An aspect that was used in The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997).
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The Dilophosaurus model was made deliberately smaller than the real thing, so as not to confuse it with the Raptors. It was nicknamed "Spitter" by Stan Winston's team.
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In Michael Crichton's novel, John Hammond proudly says (at around 42 mins) that the narrator on the pre-recorded park tour is Richard Kiley. Later, Kiley was hired to play himself in that role for the movie. Possibly the first instance of a celebrity appearing in a book, and then later cast as him or herself in the movie version. This feat was not repeated until 2009, when boxer Paolo Roberto played himself in the movie version of The Girl Who Played with Fire (2009). He too was already previously featured as a character in the book.
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There were two animatronic Tyrannosauruses built for filming. One was the full-body version, the other only consisted of a head, and was used for close-ups.
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(at around 49 mins) Tim makes references about Robert Bakker and his dinosaur book. Bakker was a technical advisor on this movie, and was the inspiration for the character of Dr. Alan Grant in the original novel.
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Steven Spielberg knew as soon as his kids saw the model T. Rex they wouldn't want to go home, which is just the reaction he wanted. Michael Crichton also viewed the model, and was impressed.
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The Gallimimus vocals were done with horses, male and female, because the females make interesting sounds when a male horse shows up like high pitched squealing. The stampede sound was running horses or cattle getting herded.
A life-size T. Rex drawing on the wall of Stan Winston's studio helped create the real thing. The T. Rex was so enormous, they had to raise the roof to accommodate the sculpture.
When filming the kitchen scene, which was filled with reflective surfaces, Dean Cundey had to plan the illumination while using black cloths to hide the light reflections.
At The 66th Annual Academy Awards (1994), Steven Spielberg's Schindler's List (1993) and this movie competed for the Best Sound category. Ultimately, this movie won.
This movie won all three Oscars for which it was nominated: Best Sound, Best Sound Effects Editing, and Best Visual Effects.
Triceratops and Dilophosaurus are the only dinosaurs not portrayed in CGI.
(at around 1h 55 mins) Steven Spielberg liked the ending for having the dinosaur bone exhibit getting demolished by the real deal and took the irony further by having the T. rex behind a banner that read "When the Dinosaurs Ruled The Earth".
Steven Spielberg and Michael Crichton first met over two decades earlier, when Spielberg gave Crichton a tour of Universal Studios during the production of The Andromeda Strain (1971).
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(at around 1h 35 mins) The scene where the T. Rex comes out of the bushes and eats the Gallimimus was shot on the island of Oahu at Kualoa Ranch. This was the only outdoor scene not filmed on Kauai, due to Hurricane Iniki.
This movie visits four places within the first thirteen minutes. After that, it stays on Isla Nublar.
Jack Horner's research is controversial, which is exactly why he found Jurassic Park, and its idea of reviving dinosaurs, especially a T. Rex, fascinating. But he is opposed to the idea of scientists reviving them.
Pre-production lasted for twenty-five months.
To showcase the movie's sound design, Steven Spielberg invested in the creation of DTS, a company specializing in digital surround sound formats, so it would allow audiences to "really hear the movie the way it was intended to be heard". George Lucas supervised the sound crew while Spielberg was in Poland working on Schindler's List (1993). The work was finished by the end of April. Sound designer Gary Rydstrom considered it a fun process, given the movie had all kinds of noises: animal sounds, rain, gunshots, vehicle crashes, scenes without music, et cetera. Spielberg took the weekends to fly from Poland to Paris, where he would meet Rydstrom to see the sound progress.
During the Gallimimus scene, Sam Neill, Ariana Richards, and Joseph Mazzello were shown pictures of them first, then went out to the hills of Oahu, Hawaii and told to run and run and run. Neill couldn't visualize the finished scene, but Steven Spielberg had a megaphone strapped to his head and made his feelings known. He worked with all three, trying to find more in the scene than on the page. When the herd turned right, Phil Tippett thought Mazzello should say "I think we're going to get flocked!" Spielberg said no and changed it to "They're uh...they're flocking this way." The log the Gallimimuses touched were painstakingly rigged by wires and miniature explosives so when Alan, Lex, and Tim hid behind it, crew members shook it to make it vibrate.
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Laura Dern loved filming the Raptor attack in the tunnels of the maintenance shed.
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Both times Lex and Tim are left by an adult, by Gennaro when he leaves the Explorer, and by Grant at the Visitors Center, they come under attack from a dinosaur or dinosaurs.
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Steven Spielberg refuses to record a director's commentary for any of his movies.
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(at around 22 mins) As well as the Brachiosaurs when Grant and Ellie first arrive in Jurassic Park, the other dinosaurs they see in the distance are Parasaurolophus.
Steven Spielberg's most expensive movie at that point in his career.
Kurt Russell turned down the role of Dr. Alan Grant, due to salary demands.
When the helicopter lands on the island (at around 17 mins), dummies were used instead of real passengers because of the riskiness of the descent at the location of Manawaiopuna Falls.
Michael Crichton was hired to adapt his novel for the big screen for five hundred thousand dollars, but David Koepp wrote the final draft, leaving out much of the novel's exposition and violence, as well as making a few character changes.
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Sam Neill was ultimately cast as Grant three or four weeks before filming began. Neill said that "it all happened real quick. I hadn't read the book, knew nothing about it, hadn't heard anything about it, and in a matter of weeks I'm working with Spielberg."
Steven Spielberg was totally surprised by the storm Hurricane Iniki. He switched on the news on the morning of September 11th. "Like in a bad movie", the first shot of the news was a map of Hawaii with the hurricane. In a 2013 interview with Matt Lauer, Sam Neill said he was standing on the beach that day with Laura Dern. Laura asked, "do you think we're gonna be alright, Sam?" Sam responded: "I think we might die, Laura." She laughed.
(at around 1h 3 mins) When Gennaro runs into the bathroom, and backs up and lands on the toilet, Martin Ferrero actually did land on the toilet which Steven Spielberg kept in due to its authenticity.
Jack Horner described the T. Rex model as "the closest I've ever been to a live dinosaur".
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The movie marked the climax of the "Dinosaur Renaissance", a groundbreaking scientific revolution that lasted from the 1960s until the early 1990s, during which dinosaurs went from being seen as sluggish, dimwitted, and cold-blooded reptiles, to the agile, intelligent, and warm-blooded animals depicted in this movie. It also presented a new kind of visual "design" of the dinosaurs to the public. Much of this can be traced back to the works of paleontologists John Ostrom (who first realized the uniqueness of "raptor" dinosaurs), Robert Bakker, Jack Horner (on whom the character of Dr. Alan Grant was based), and Gregory Paul. In fact, modern day paleontologists often jokingly call the 1990s and early 2000s the "Paulian Era", because the appearances of the dinosaurs in the movie and in virtually every other piece of work created at this time were based on reconstructions originally made by Greg Paul. Newer scientific findings have, however, proven much of these to be incorrect, which has lead to the coining of the term "shrink-wrapped dinosaurs", as many of Paul's reconstructions (and by extension, the Jurassic Park dinosaurs) look like dinosaur skeletons coated in muscle and skin, but virtually no other soft tissue.
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Brachiosaurus means "arm lizard" and was one of the largest animals ever weighing up to ninety tons. They were called sauropods. The Brachiosaur was one of the few dinosaurs in the movie that lived in the Jurassic period 200 million years ago, but it was the Triassic that launched the age of dinosaurs. Tim mentioned Brontosauruses which were used in the movie, which means "thunder lizard", and were smaller, about thirty to forty tons.
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Although sickly in the movie, a Triceratops could, in reality, successfully battle a T. Rex.
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Steven Spielberg wanted the movie to honor dinosaurs in a way that had never been seen before. He wanted the audience to believe what they were seeing.
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There is a popular fan theory that the boy who gets scared by Alan for scoffing at the velociraptor in the Utah scene is a young Owen Grady from Jurassic World (2015).
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This movie gave a much needed boost to Michael Crichton's flagging career. After the global success of this movie, Crichton became a hot commodity in Hollywood, with many of his novels adapted into movies.
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(at around 1h 55 mins) Later in the movie, as one of the Jeeps pulls up, right before they get out, the camera zooms in on the Jeep door. The Jurassic Park logo is on the door, but it is covered in mud so that the only words that can be read is "urass Park", perhaps a subtle joke about many of the characters getting hurt or killed in the movie.
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The leaf Ellie examines is something she took en route, and it's in the trailer, but not the final movie.
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In a 2010 poll, Entertainment Weekly rated this movie the greatest Summer movie of the last twenty years.
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The helicopter used in the movie was later involved in an accident in Hawaii in March 2001. In the accident, the chopper dropped ten feet to the ground, bounced back up and then tipped on its right side.
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Jeff Goldblum was first interviewed for the role of Dr. Ian Malcolm after director Steven Spielberg abandoned the draft written by Malia Scotch Marmo, which had omitted Malcolm. Although they didn't use her draft, they were still considering leaving the character out, which Spielberg told Goldblum. Goldblum had read the book and advocated heavily for the character's inclusion.
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Scientists think that the position of the Velociraptors arms might be incorrect. Instead, the wrists of the Velociraptors would've been turned inward like the Velociraptors were constantly holding a basketball. This would've made it much more difficult for the raptors to open the door to the kitchen.
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The Tyrannosaur paddock set was constructed on-location and as a studio set. The former was for the daytime scene in which the creature fails to appear, and the latter for its nighttime escape, in order to accommodate Stan Winston's robotic T. Rex. This set required a soundstage much bigger than Universal had to offer, so it was filmed at Warner Brothers Studio.
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Steven Spielberg identified with Hammond's obsession with showmanship.
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The AFI named this movie the 35th most thrilling movie of all time on June 13, 2001.
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(at around 1h 55 mins) In one moment of the movie, one Velociraptor appears in head shot illuminated with a computer screen full of four letters repeated time and time again: "ACGT". These letters are the acronym for Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine, DNA's base pairs.
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(at around 10 mins) On the walls inside Grant and Sattler's trailer are a couple of scientific skeletal reconstructions of raptors, according to how they had really been imagined in the beginning of the 1990s. Interestingly, these are actually the most accurate dinosaur reconstructions on the film, having been made by paleontologist and paleo-artist Gregory Paul, whose book (Predatory Dinosaurs of the World) Michael Crichton studied when writing the original Jurassic Park novel. One of the papers on the wall is in fact a page from Paul's book.
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The park software is written in Pascal. A program is clearly visible in one of the monitor close-ups on the UNIX system. The graphical interface recognized as a UNIX system was the experimental Silicon Graphics 3-D File System Navigator. The version number of the Silicon Graphics UNIX Operating System is 4.0.5 and is visible in one of the close-ups in the operating system's shell window (command program).
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Steven Spielberg wanted all the top special effects people in the business to work on the movie as the design team, Stan Winston, Dennis Muren, Phil Tippett, and Michael Lantieri. They jumped at the chance.
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Ariana Richards still gets recognized as Lex even when she attended the premiere of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018).
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When scouting in Kauai, Steven Spielberg thought the jungle looked like broccoli. He wanted a division between the clearing and the tops of the trees for the first scene with the Brachiosaur. Initially, it was to appear behind some trees, but they obstructed it.
The Raptor hatching scene was envisioned with someone holding the egg at first.
The third dinosaur scene with the cast was at the Raptor pen, where Steven Spielberg provided some of the vocalizations to motivate the actors.
John Hammond says, "spared no expense" a total of five times, First-(Referencing his new "game preserve" island) "Really spectacular. Spared no expense. It makes the one I had in Kenya look like a petting zoo." Second-(Referencing the rides and attractions at the park) "Absolutely spectacular designs. Spared no expense." Third-(Referencing the electric cars) "Spared no expense. Have fun." Fourth-(Referencing voice-over narration at the park) "We spared no expense." Fifth-(Ironically referencing ice-cream) "Spared no expense."
(at around 1h 45 mins) "Clever Girl" was ranked #6 Greatest Movie Quotes by IGN.
Compositing dinosaurs onto live-action scenes took up to an hour. Rendering them took from two to four hours per frame, but the T. Rex in the rain took up to six hours.
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(at around 1h 30 mins) The scene where they show an injured Malcolm laying spread-eagled on a table with his shirt wide open (after Grant said that Malcolm was right that life found a way for the dinosaurs to breed) became synonymous with the movie and into pop culture and even has its own brand new Funko Pop.
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The first movie to cross the $400 and $500 million dollar marks at the international box office.
(at around 20 mins) Jeff Goldblum claimed that his reaction to seeing a Brachiosaurus for the first time was captured in one take ("you crazy son-of-a-bitch, you did it"), with Steven Spielberg dictating to him off-camera what expression he wanted.
(at around 2h 5 mins) When it says "A Steven Spielberg film" at the end of the movie, listen closely. You will hear the slightly modified five tones from Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977).
(at around 32 mins) The scene where an entire steer is fed to the raptors, a steer was harnessed in a special cattle sling, hoisted up by a crane, then lowered into foliage. The steer is not shown being devoured, but the effect is created with sound effects. The steer filmed for this scene was actually very mellow as he had been prepped and rehearsed with it over a period of time prior to filming. The harness was the type normally used to move steer and was safe and secure.
William Hurt was offered the role of Dr. Grant, but he turned it down without reading the book or the script.
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The real species called Velociraptor was much smaller (about three tall) than the animals in the movie and were believed to have been feathered. They were part of bipedal, bird-like predators of the family Dromaeosauridae, some of which were even larger than the "velociraptors" in the movie.
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Michael Crichton's original idea for the screenplay was about a graduate student who re-creates a dinosaur. He continued to wrestle with his fascination with dinosaurs and cloning until he turned it into a novel. Steven Spielberg first learned of it in October 1989.
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The T. Rex model was the largest sculpture ever made by the Stan Winston studio.
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Dinosaur supervisor Phil Tippett did the Brachiosaurus scenes first. They were difficult because of the new technology. He wanted flesh moving, so when the feet went down you saw tremors through the muscles. Dean Cundey made it appear like it was nibbling by attaching a cable to the top of the tree and pulled on it to get the branch to react and snap. The animators carefully coordinated the animation with that.
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Dr. Alan Grant has at least two dinosaur models from the 1988 Carnegie Collection: The original green color Tyrannosaurus Rex, and the adult Apatosaurus.
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Harrison Ford has never watched this movie all of the way through. He was offered the role of Dr. Alan Grant, but turned it down.
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A Jurassic Park tourist attraction was unveiled at Dorset's Dinosaur Museum. Also, there's a Jurassic Park log flume ride at Universal Studios in Los Angeles. All of the Universal Parks and Resorts include a theme ride associated with this movie. The first was Jurassic Park: The Ride on June 15, 1996, built after six years of development for one hundred ten million dollars. It was replicated for Universal Studios Japan, in 2001. Islands of Adventure in Orlando, Florida (a place Hammond wished he had built the real park), has an entire section dedicated to the movie that includes the main ride, christened "Jurassic Park River Adventure" and many smaller rides and attractions based on the film franchise. In Universal Studios Singapore, which opened in 2010, the Themed Zone named The Lost World consists mostly of Jurassic Park rides, such as the roller coaster Canopy Flyer and the river rapids Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure.
Ariana Richards regretted never getting to work with the Dilophosaurus or even see it during the shoot because it was a real surprise when watching the movie. She was glad she didn't get spat at though.
Steven Spielberg managed to acquire the movie rights before the novel was even published for one and a half million dollars in 1990.
The animatronic raptors used in the movie were given the names Kim and Randy by the crew.
Steven Spielberg identified with John Hammond, seeing strong parallels between Hammond's vision for the park and his own work as a filmmaker. To this end, Hammond was made a more sympathetic character. To show the parallels to filmmaking, Spielberg cast fellow filmmaker Sir Richard Attenborough, which acknowledges the past and predicts the future. Spielberg lost the Best Picture and Best Director awards to him when E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) lost to Gandhi (1982). Spielberg's subsequent film, Schindler's List (1993), won both Oscars, and both starred Sir Ben Kingsley.
In 2011, Martin Ferrero reprised his role of Donald Gennaro in a CollegeHumor parody of this movie.
Researchers from the Faculty of Life Sciences at The University of Manchester tried to harvest DNA from young sub-fossilized insects preserved in copal (the precursor to amber) to no avail, suggesting that the likelihood of finding ancient DNA in a specimen much older is much less likely.
The filmmakers and effects crew considered changing the Velociraptor's name back to Deinonychus, on which the creature was actually based. Ultimately, like Michael Crichton, they decided that velociraptor sounded cooler. All of their research, however, was based on deinonychus.
According to David Koepp, the famous, "Hold onto your butts!" catchphrase spoken by Samuel L. Jackson was actually inspired by Robert Zemeckis, when they were working on Death Becomes Her (1992), and he had the good sense to jot it down immediately and use it.
Mark 'Crash' McCreery designed the Velociraptor for the film. He created concepts of three life stages of the raptor: hatchling, juvenile, and adult, the juvenile which was never seen in the film, but was originally going to be included. McCreery began drawing the Velociraptor after his first two drawings of T. Rex when the film was trying to get greenlighted. Two of his drawings were created in 1991 and like with Mark Hallett's drawings, a trait in many of McCreery's concepts was a different head design from that of the Velociraptor on screen. Some design choices were suggested and/or considered of the Velociraptor in the film, but were never used. Phil Tippett once created go motion animatics of the raptors in the kitchen that featured them having forked tongues that they would flick out of its mouth like that of snake or monitor lizard as an allusion to the cross-referencing with genetic engineering used to create the dinosaurs. This idea was scrapped as paleontological consultant Jack Horner disagreed with it saying "No, can't do that, that's a lizard, dinosaurs aren't lizards they're birds."
Upon learning that he had been cast as Malcolm, Jeff Goldblum, who had read the novel to prepare, went out and bought the clothes his character would wear. He is described in the book as wearing all black, coming from Dallas (hence the cowboy boots) and, like a typical chaos theorist, behaving like a rock star, hence the leather jacket, sunglasses, and jewelry.
(at around 32 mins) Hammond describes Muldoon as an "alarmist". Michael Crichton was often alarmist about scientific discoveries, as mirrored in Muldoon and Malcolm's characters.
Although this was one of the first movies to use CGI, it was pioneered (albeit in its infancy) on another Steven Spielberg movie, Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977).
Steven Spielberg left the editing for two weeks to start shooting Schindler's List (1993) in Poland.
The second highest-grossing movie of the twentieth century (not adjusted for inflation), behind Titanic (1997).
All of the raptors are kept in a small pen near the Visitor Center. However, things that Robert Muldoon says hints that the raptors weren't always kept in this pen, nor that it is their permanent place as he states; "Fifty, sixty miles per hour if they ever got out in the open. She's the reason we have to feed 'em like this. She had them all attacking the fences when the feeders came." - Muldoon. At a later moment, a computer screen shows that the electric fences fall off. The computer screen shows the position of a "Raptor Paddock". The enclosure in the movie is narrower than most other enclosures. The Paddock is surrounded by the other paddocks. In the nest scene, Alan Grant and the children discover a dinosaur nest at a tree trunk. Some fans think this scene took place in the Raptor Paddock, and that it is a raptor's nest. This can be highly supported by shape of the babies tracks leaving the nest.
Nicole Kidman, Heather Graham, Lisa Rinna, Renée Zellweger, Kim Raver, and Mariska Hargitay were among those considered for the role of Dr. Ellie Sattler.
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The picture that can be seen taped to programmer Dennis Nedry's computer monitor is of J. Robert Oppenheimer. The picture is partly obscured by a post-it with an atomic bomb mushroom cloud drawn on it.
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This movie was storyboarded before it was scripted.
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The release strategy was planned fifteen months before the studio had the chance to see a frame of the movie.
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Phil Tippett recruited a team to supply more than fifty Go-Motion (a more refined version of stop-motion) shots.
Phil Tippett was disappointed that Steven Spielberg wanted one hundred percent CGI, and no Go-Motion, but Tippett became the director of the CGI dinosaurs, almost like an animal trainer.
The amber mine where Gennaro meets Juanito is called "Mano de Dios", which in English means "Hand of God".
In the special features for The Fly (1986), Jeff Goldblum revealed that he first met Martin Ferrero at the airport for their flight to Hawaii. Ferrero then suggested that it should be Malcolm who dies, and Gennaro who lives. This is, in fact, how it went in the novel. Malcolm ultimately dies of his injuries, and Gennaro; who is not present for the Tyrannosaur attack because he stayed behind with Ellie with the sick Steogsaurus/Triceratops; lives and helps Muldoon get the park running again, much of which was given to Ellie in the movie.
Scientists working in Myanmar uncovered a nearly one hundred-million-year-old baby snake encased in amber. Dating back to the late Cretaceous Period, it's the oldest known baby snake in the fossil record, and the first snake known to have lived in a forested environment. Over two thousand nine hundred species of snake exist in the world, and they can be found on every continent except Antarctica. These legless reptiles first emerged during the Cretaceous Period, and they wasted little time, slithering to virtually every part of the planet around one hundred million years ago. The discovery of a baby snake fossilized in amber shows that early snakes had spread beyond swamps and sea shores, finding their way into forested environments. What's more, these ancient snakes bore a startling resemblance to those living today, a classic case of evolution not having to fix something that isn't broken.
Some on the crew were worried that the computers would replace them, but instead it created more work for them.
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Broke the opening weekend record that had been set by Batman Returns (1992). It broke opening records in several countries.
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In the Jurassic Park movies, the dinosaurs are shown waving their tails quite a bit. In reality, these tails would be rigid and used to balance the animal. Therefore, if the tails on large creatures like the T. Rex flailed everywhere like the movie, the T. Rex would run a much larger risk of losing balance.
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Principal photography finished twelve days ahead of schedule, and on budget.
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Raptors are close knit, smart, fast, and maneuverable in their choreography more than any dinosaur. They could manipulate things with their fingers, as shown in the movie where they learn to open a door.
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(at around 15 mins) When Malcolm says to Grant and Sattler on the helicopter, "so you two dig up dinosaur bones" to which Grant responds "try to" to which Malcolm laughs at was Jeff Goldblum's favorite scene filmed.
Paleontologist Rubén A. Rodríguez de la Rosa proposed some dinosaurs transmit venom in a similar way to venomous snakes. Scott Sampson of the Utah Museum of Natural History hypothesized that dinosaur bites could've been deadly due to large quantities of bacteria in their mouths (similar to Komodo dragons). However, in both theories, they'd be incapable of projecting the venom onto their prey.
(at around 21 mins) Earlier in the film, Hammond mentions that "they clocked the T. rex going 32 miles per hour," so the car could easily outrun it. Computer simulations using the T. rex's skeletal structure have found that it probably only ran at a maximum of 11-18 mph and that its legs, in ratio to the rest of its body, were not large enough to propel it beyond 25 mph. It was Ian's leaning back in terror that stopped the car from accelerating at first, resulting in the close shave before the getaway. When Ian leans back, he knocks the gear shift lever loose which put the Jeep in neutral (at around 1h 21 mins). You can hear Muldoon shouting "Get off the stick! Bloody move!!" to Ian.
(at around 1h 14 mins) After Nedry is attacked by the Dilophosaurus we see the shaving cream can containing the dinosaur embryos he stole being buried in mud. This can is also present at the very end of the Jurassic Park ride where it is sitting on a rock next to a Dilophosaurus squirting water at riders the same way the animal squirted venom at Nedry.
The character played by Cameron Thor is named "Lewis Dodgson". Author of "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland", Lewis Carroll was born with the name Charles Dodgson. Since both the first and last names of the character are written with the less common spellings which Carroll used, this is a fairly obvious nod to him, although the reason for the joke is unclear. Lewis Carroll's novel is referenced again when Nedry names his program to sabotage the park security systems "White Rabbit Object", which is in the novel.
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There have been attempts made before and after the movie to locate preserved dinosaur DNA. Ten percent of the time, they were successful, but never a completely uncontaminated sample.
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Michael Keaton, Bruce Campbell, Johnny Depp, Ted Danson, Steve Guttenberg, and Michael J. Fox were screentested for the part of Dr. Ian Malcolm.
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(at around 1h 55 mins) When Lex nearly fell through the ceiling, the stunt girl looked up at the camera and Ariana Richards' face had to be superimposed, something not possible before the advent of CGI. It's considered one of the movie's most thrilling visuals.
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Laura Linney auditioned for the role of Ellie Sattler.
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Tyrannosaurus Rex means "tyrant lizard". The T. Rex was the last massive carnivorous dinosaur.
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Released into 3-D on April 5, 2013, for the movie's 20th Anniversary. Other countries saw the re-release over the following six months. This release also had a Burger King promotional tie-in. Many people felt the 3-D conversion didn't enhance the effects in any way, mainly because most of the dinosaur scenes are set at night, and shadows don't come out the screen very well the way the day scenes do. This re-release pushed the movie's total gross to one billion dollars, the seventeenth movie to do so. It now ranks as the fourteenth highest grossing movie worldwide, the sixteenth highest grossing movie in North America (unadjusted for inflation), and the highest grossing movie released by Universal Pictures and directed by Steven Spielberg. Spielberg claimed he had produced the movie with a "subconscious 3-D", since the movie has animals walking toward the cameras and some effects of foreground and background overlay. In 2011, he stated that this movie was the only movie he had made he had considered for a conversion, and once he saw the 3-D version of Titanic (1997), he really liked the new look of the movie, and he hired the same retrofitting company. Spielberg and Janusz Kaminski supervised the nine month process during the production of Lincoln (2012). Industrial Light & Magic contributed some elements and updated effects shots for a better visual enhancement.
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Steven Spielberg needed miniature photography for any wide angle, or full-length dinosaur shots.
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Stan Winston claimed the first T. Rex attack was the most amazing scene on which he had ever worked, at that point in his career. It was difficult, because it was raining, and that had to be kept off the T. Rex, otherwise it would soak it up, start shaking, and change weight, and have to be dried off.
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In anticipation of its Blu-ray release, Jurassic Park had a digital print released into U.K. cinemas on September 23, 2011. It wound up grossing £245,422 from two hundred seventy-six cinemas, finishing at eleventh on the weekend box-office charts.
Made its VHS and LaserDisc debut on October 4, 1994. With seventeen million units sold in both formats, it's the fifth best-selling VHS tape ever. It was released on DVD on October 10, 2000. It was the thirteenth best-selling DVD of the year, with nine hundred ten thousand units sold. In 2012, this movie was among twenty-five movies Universal Pictures picked for a box set that celebrated the studio's 100th Anniversary, as well as in Blu-ray, with an augmented reality cover. The following year, the 20th Anniversary 3-D conversion was issued on Blu-ray 3-D.
Included among the American Film Institute's 1998 list of the four hundred movies nominated for the Top 100 Greatest American Movies.
"Hold onto your butts" was voted #5 Greatest Movie Quotes by IGN.
(at around 1h 30 mins) U.K. streaming service, sanctioned the construction of a dinosaur-sized Jeff Goldblum monument in his memorable semi-supine pose from this movie with his exposed chest in all of its glory, for the 25th Anniversary of the science fiction staple. Although the anniversary was officially on June 11, the sculpture was placed in front of the iconic Tower Bridge in London on Wednesday. Like the shot of the partly shirtless Goldblum, which is so peculiar because he looks so magnificent despite the fact his character had just broken his leg, the statue is too huge to fully absorb at a glance. Standing at over 9.8 feet tall, twenty-three feet long, and weighs three hundred thirty-one pounds. Bringing it to life took a substantial amount of man hours: two hundred fifty hours over six weeks.
(at around 1h 30 mins) In an interview with IGN, Jeff Goldblum described how his iconic semi-supine pose came to be, he vaguely recalled director Steven Spielberg slyly asking him to unbutton and to rub oil on his chest.
Three dinosaurs in the movie are shown to be sick, the Triceratops after eating the West Indian lilac berries, the Tyrannosaurus Rex throws up at one point after eating Gennaro, when Dr. Grant and Lex are hiding from her behind the overturned Ford Explorer, and the Brachiosaur with the nose cold who sneezes on Lex.
The global success of the movie created a worldwide interest in dinosaurs, and a sudden interest in museums.
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Jodie Foster, Sigourney Weaver, Michelle Pfeiffer, Ally Sheedy, Geena Davis, Daryl Hannah, Jennifer Grey, Kelly McGillis, Jamie Lee Curtis, Julia Roberts, Linda Hamilton, Sarah Jessica Parker, Bridget Fonda, Joan Cusack, and Debra Winger were all considered for the role of Dr. Ellie Sattler.
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The Gallimimus stampede took place in a pasture. The crew came across a herd of cows and jokingly offered them jobs, offering to dress them up in latex as dinosaurs. Sadly, they all ran away.
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(at around 43 mins) The computer in the back of the computer room with the many (65536) red LEDs is a real computer: The Connection Machine CM-5 made by Thinking Machines. It contained many SPARC 2 RISC processors and the LEDs were added to make the machine more aesthetically pleasing than their previous models. Unfortunately, it was not actually a very good supercomputer and the company failed not long afterward. The comment about networking eight connection machines is pretty superfluous as they were meant to be used like this. The bigger problem was writing programs that efficiently mapped onto the data parallel architecture.
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The Dilophosaurus was made smaller than an actual one to differentiate it from the Raptors and to not have it compete with the T. Rex. But by making it smaller it fit the story, at first you don't take it seriously, but then you see how dangerous it is.
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Although composed by John Williams, his score for this movie is not often counted among Williams' more famous movie scores. In 2013, for the 20th Anniversary of the movie, Williams released an album that restored fourteen minutes of music, cut from the original movie.
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Universal's Stage 24 became the industrial size kitchen set. Stan Winston's team manipulated every moving part of the full size Raptors, while Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello cowered in a corner.
Dr. Grant's discovery that dinosaurs move in herds is taken from Jack Horner's research. Horner owns a Deinonychus claw, similar to the Raptor claw Grant owns.
Michael Crichton was encouraged to write the novel after he took the idea about dinosaur cloning to some scientists who saw the plausibility in it. Crichton told Steven Spielberg the idea and he loved it, so Spielberg coaxed the rest of the story out of him. Spielberg then storyboarded the book (something he had never done before), with scenes he wanted to carry over to the movie.
Michael Crichton spent years working on the story, trying to convince himself the premise was not so unlikely. He had to do a lot of research before he could.
Steven Spielberg wouldn't have made the movie if he felt he couldn't get away with it, or shared a personal connection with it. Notions he has on all of his movies.
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Velociraptor also means "quick plunderer". Their level of intelligence in this movie is equivalent to a chimpanzee with similar grasping hands.
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In the 5th edition of 1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die, this movie is listed.
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One of the top 20 highest grossing movies of all time.
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Much of the dinosaur behavior in the movie derived from information gleaned at digs in Montana, like the one in the movie, America's biggest dinosaur graveyard.
Steven Spielberg supervised the post-production on this movie concurrently with the filming of Schindler's List (1993).
In May 1990, Universal Pictures obtained galleys of Jurassic Park and wanted to purchase it on Steven Spielberg's behalf. Michael Crichton had written the book in two years. Of the four major studios bidding on it, Crichton was happiest with Spielberg's involvement, and less than a week later, Spielberg got the job of directing it.
Jack Horner supervised all of the dinosaur designs, to get them as close to the real thing as possible.
This movie was completed on May 28, 1993, and released into theaters on June 11, 1993, but it premiered two days earlier at the National Building Museum in Washington, D.C., in support of two children's charities. Its nationwide release was in two thousand four hundred four locations on an estimated three thousand four hundred screens, with an international three thousand four hundred prints. Following release, a travelling exhibition called "The Dinosaurs of Jurassic Park" began, showcasing dinosaur skeletons and props from the movie.
The largest puppet in the movie, without hydraulics, was the Brachiosaur's upper neck and head.
This movie has an almost similar plot with that of the H.G. Wells novel "The Island of Dr. Moreau". In the novel, the scientist Dr. Moreau has conducted genetic experiments on his island which mutant hybrids of man and animals were created and inhabit the island. In both the movie and novel, John Hammond has set up a theme park on an island where genetic scientists have cloned dinosaurs.
The movie's logo and promotional image were in place before filming began.
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The hatchling's egg was made of wax with a layer of Saran Wrap laid on top of it, and the hatchling was molded by Greg Figiel. The puppet was puppeteered by over seven people.
For the hatchling vocalizations, Gary Rydstrom aimed to find a baby animal that had raspy vocalizations as the adults would make similar sounds. Rydstrom and his team recorded various baby animals including those of owls and foxes for the newly born raptor. The baby owl sounds were used for the baby's vocals upon Dr. Grant discovering its identity.
A team of paleogeneticists at the University of Copenhagen and Murdoch University determined that after one and a half million years, the nucleotide bonds in DNA would be too short to get any meaningful data. Dinosaurs are said to have gone extinct sixty-five million years ago, so any nucleotide bonds between their DNA strands are most likely unsalvageable. A finding which has no bearing on a fictional story.
(at around 26 mins) The scene where Mr. DNA is discussing the creation of the dinosaurs has a list of genetic code that flies along the screen. This is not dinosaur DNA, but is also not random. The code belongs to a restriction enzyme which is a circle of DNA used by E. coli to defend itself against viruses. It was the first completely sequenced full section of DNA.
(at around 36 mins) Jeff Goldblum quoted his character's memorable line, when responding to a recently reshared 2015 article about scientists at Harvard and Yale attempting to recreate dinosaurs. "Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn't stop to think if they should", Goldblum tweeted.
(at around 1h 3 mins) When Gennaro runs to the toilet to hide from the T-Rex, he passes a sign which says "No Feeding, Flash Photography or Yelling"; the group does a form of all three in the moments leading up to the attack.
Dilophosaurus lived during the early Jurassic Period, before mosquitoes are currently confirmed by the fossil record to exist. If Jurassic Park was able to find any viable DNA specimens, there would have been very little to go on. This would mean that there would be more gaps than normal in the DNA sequence, subsequently filled by more frog DNA. This could explain why the Dilophosaurus are so different from their prehistoric counterparts, far more so than other dinosaurs.
The Stan Winston Studio team responsible for the creation of the Dilophosaur animatronic analyzed frame by frame a documentary featuring an ostrich which they used to create the hopping gait of its animatronic. Initially, a cam operated mechanism was created for one of its legs to follow the gait of an ostrich before a different mechanism was chosen. This later mechanism were rods coming out of its feet going beneath the floor and operated by a puppeteer. Inspired by the Steadicam, Rick Galinson created the concept for its neck. Each spring in the neck and head were sprung differently with each spring being heavier from the head the to the body, providing realistic movements. This had mechanism had originally been proposed for the raptor, but Stan Winston Studio was not convinced that it would work on an animal that large, so the steady cam mechanism was transferred to the Dilophosaurus. After the mechanism was crated, Stan Winston was impressed by what Galinson had done and applied it to the animatronic of the Velociraptor's head and neck, scrapping an alternate design for the raptor animatronic. The animatronic had three interchangeable heads: the frill in a lowered position, mechanized to allow the frill to open, and lastly the frill open and able to rattle as well as the ability to spit. The frill itself was a sheet of latex rubber glued onto some support rods hooked to a pulley. When activated it rotate out and forward at the same time as it was coming off the animatronic Dilo's neck. Its ability to spit was a paintball mechanism with the spit itself being a mixture of methacyl and K-Y Jelly with some food coloring. Underneath the tongue of the third head were two holes for the tubing that would have high-pressure air pumped through them to allow the animatronic the ability to "spit". The rest of the body, such as the head, tail, and arms were radio controlled. Cable-actuated insert legs were also created to portray the Dilo's hop when it initially approaches Nedry. The hopping was created by the legs being suspended from stage catwalks on bungee cords.
For the filming of Nedry's demise, a trench was built on the set for the path the Dilophosaurus would take as well as so that Shane Mahan could support and puppeteer the Dilo's legs while a crane above supported its body and the rest of the team responsible for its creation radio-controlled the other body parts of the animatronic upstairs. Because of the copious amount of water that was to be on the set during shooting, the soundstage used in the filming of the scene had a water tank underneath the set and was supposed to drain into the Los Angeles River, but the drainage system did not function well. This caused water to overflow into the puppeteering area, which lead to Mahan being given a riser to stand on just to get at least some of the water off of him, but the water level only got higher. The roaring of the water made it difficult to hear out of his headset making him unable to hear the film crew, which made him rely on video monitor stacked onto some Snapple boxes. But water got so high that this monitor floated away from Mahan and was rising to his chest. However, this was toward the end of filming and filming of the scene was filmed without Mahan drowning. Director Steven Spielberg thought that the Dilophosaurus was going to be the easiest practical dinosaur to film in Jurassic Park, but was disappointed by the problems that occurred when filming of the scene. The Dilophosaurus and Triceratops are the only dinosaurs to appear in Jurassic Park that did not use CGI, only using animatronics.
Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus had very short arms with only two fingers. Despite the limbs' size, each were able to bench-press about 400 pounds. Although these were probably nearly useless while hunting, its jaws were not: Tyrannosaurus has an enormous skull armed with teeth the size of bananas. Unlike the teeth of most theropods, the teeth of tyrannosaurids are very thick and capable of crushing bones and with a bite force of a minimum 4 tons of force and probably more, crushing bone, ripping flesh, and bursting blood vessels of the victim. The skull and neck bones show that T. rex had the largest neck muscles of any meat-eating dinosaur. It probably used its strong neck to twist and pull off big chunks of meat that it grasped with its jaws while supporting the huge head. Tyrannosaurus could bite with extremely strong force - one fossilized skeleton shows that it crushed and swallowed the bones of a smaller plant-eating dinosaur while another shows a Tyrannosaurus coprolite with the crushed frill of a Triceratops. Additionally, in Jurassic World: Alive, the Generation 2 Tyrannosaurus is referred to as Tyrannosaurus magnus, which scientists have considered a separate genus, Zhuchengtyrannus
Originally, the hatchery was to feature the infant Velociraptor based on the novel that would climb up Tim Murphy's arm and a hatchling Triceratops that would be portrayed by a simple finger puppet poking its head out of its egg. But the infant raptor would be scrapped and the Triceratops hatchling would become a raptor hatchling instead. Furthermore, the finger puppet approach was scrapped when director Steven Spielberg wanted the hatchling to crawl out of its shell. So Stan Winston Studio initially decided that the hatchling would be portrayed with cables with said cables being digitally removed in post-production until Richard J. Landon volunteered to design the animatronic. Landon mechanized the animatronic internally which was a difficult task for him.
According to Mark Hallett, Steven Spielberg once considered during early development outfitting some of the chickens he owned with prosthetic heads, arms, and tails then letting them go berserk on scaled-down stage sets to the portray the raptors until the computer animation was perfected, but he was later convinced by those close to him to discard this idea. The idea for a bodysuit came independently from Stan Winston Studio when they were observing early storyboards. There was originally going to only be one full bodysuit to be made for the film though this soon became two suits. Each suit required the puppeteer to get into a skiing stance when entering before they were then zipped inside the suit using a zipper located in the back. To allow the puppeteer to see inside the suit, there were several small slits located in the neck where the person's head would be as well as a small TV monitor that was also fixed inside the bodysuit. Furthermore, due to the design of the suit being air-tight, an airline had to be fed up one of its' legs. Despite the original plan to design the suits without cable controlled mechanisms, instead using servos and radio-control, but cables were added to streamline the suit. The final suit featured radio-controlled eyes and the arms was half radio-controlled and half-cable controlled, the cables for the arms running down one of the legs of the suit. Furthermore, the tail was also mechanized and the wearer was able to move the head by two rods located inside the neck. John Rosengrant and Mark 'Crash' McCreery were selected to perform in the Velociraptor suits. Stan Winston hired a trainer to give the two men back exercises due to the position that they would be in during filming. Both suits saw usage in the famous Kitchen Scene, particularly when the first raptor to enter the kitchen calls for her subordinate. Rosengrant also used a raptor suit in the scene where Muldoon is killed.
Steven Spielberg wanted the Velociraptors to have forked tongues. According to Jack Horner he had to convince Spielberg to not give the velociraptors a snake-like aesthetic. "Originally Steven wanted them to walk in flicking their forked tongues," Horner said. "I said, 'No, no you cannot do that.'" Giving the raptors a forked tongue would have been scientifically inaccurate, since these dinosaurs were more closely related to birds than snakes. Spielberg isn't wholly to blame for wanting to give his raptors an unscientific tongue: In the "Jurassic Park" book upon which the movie is based, author Michael Crichton describes a Tyrannosaurus rex as having a forked tongue. Crichton writes of the T. rex: "With a low growl, the jaws slowly opened, and the tongue snaked out. It was thick and blue-black, with a little forked indentation at the tip. It was 4 feet long, and easily reached back to the far wall of the recess." But realistically, it's unlikely that the T. rex or velociraptor - or any dinosaur, for that matter - had a forked tongue the way modern-day snakes do.
Ray types on an IBM Model M 1391401 keyboard, a favorite for computer programmers for its distinctive audible keystroke.
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It is the first movie to be dubbed in Hindi.
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Costa Rica was dismissed as a location because of Steven Spielberg's concerns about infrastructure and accessibility. He chose Kauai as a location because he had worked there before.
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Juliette Binoche was offered the role of Dr. Ellie Sattler, but turned it down in order to make Three Colors: Blue (1993) with Krzysztof Kieslowski.
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Steven Spielberg wanted a predator as dangerous as the T. Rex, so he included the Raptors, but combined them with another species, Deinonychus. Spielberg liked the name Velociraptor, but is not very tall, whereas Deinonychus is the size of a human being, so Spielberg combined them, because they came from the same branch of the dinosaur tree. The Deinonychus has the retractable claw that's as sharp as a box cutter, but has smaller teeth than a Raptor. Also, the Deinonychus eats you before it kills you, rather than the Raptor, and they hunt in packs and ambush their victims instead of the Raptor.
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According to Daan Sandee (Thinking Machines Corp), the CM-5 super computer, used in the control room, was one of only two ever built to that size (1024 nodes). The other machine was at Los Alamos. The machine used in the movie, was sold in smaller segments after the scenes were complete. Mirrors were used to make it seem like more CM-5s were present.
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Ray Arnold (Samuel L. Jackson) always has a cigarette between his lips, or between his fingers, every time he is seen in the movie. In the scene where he and Muldoon tell Hammond that the tour should be halted due to the storm, he is not smoking a cigarette, but has one lit nearby, hence the small cloud of smoke behind him. Him being a chain smoker was carried over from the novel.
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Stan Winston, enthusiastic about the new technology pioneered by this movie, joined with IBM and James Cameron to form a new visual effects company, Digital Domain.
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Birds are a Velociraptor's closest living relative. The knowledge that dinosaurs are related to birds dates back to 1868, with similar ankles and tails, wrists and claws. Birds are the real way to bring a dinosaur back to life, with emus being the nearest thing there is to a dinosaur today, with the way they walk. Birds are a descendant of dinosaurs and chickens may lead to the creation of a dinosaur someday, but not a full-blooded one. It could also extend to other extinct animals and new fuels.
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Since the Gallimimuses were precursors to birds, they had sophisticated flocking mechanisms; the parents keep the smaller ones in the middle of the group for protection. Details like that enhanced the scene subliminally.
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The T. Rex was named "Roberta" in the storyboards by Phil Tippett, but many fans have accepted "Rexy" as her name. As of 2004, this animal was officially dubbed "Rexy" by her caretakers. This name is derived from the Latin rex, meaning "king," which is the specific epithet of Tyrannosaurus rex; it is modified into an English diminutive form as a sign of affection. This is a reference to her unofficial nickname in the novel, "Rexie." She is seldom referred to by InGen employees by this name, with the last confirmed use in 2004. Instead, she is typically referred to as "the tyrannosaur" or "the T. rex," though this risks confusion with InGen's other Tyrannosaurus rex specimens. During production of the film Jurassic Park, some material refers to her as "Roberta," though this name has never been used directly within the film canon. Similarly, she is given the nickname "Gulper" in one of the early toy lines, but this name has never been used in the film canon. Rexy was a popular nickname given by the fandom; it was suggested to be official in the mobile game Jurassic World: The Game and confirmed in The Evolution of Claire, which released on June 26, 2018. The production nickname "Roberta" has become increasingly popular among older members of the fandom as a response to the more popular "Rexy" being confirmed as official. To avoid causing distress to these more sensitive members of the fandom, Jurassic-Pedia has opted not to use the tyrannosaur's official canon name.
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Ian Malcolm only sees four dinosaurs: Brachiosaurus, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Triceratops, and the baby velociraptor.
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Shooting on Kauai was completed by mid September, 1992 and then the crew shot the first scene with Grant and Ellie in the Mojave desert in two days. The rest of the movie was shot on soundstages, like the Genetics lab, the Visitors Centre and the T. Rex paddock. The first T. Rex attack gave the crew more control being shot on a soundstage, with CGI and animatronics interacting with the cast, and the set, and real-life, while being controlled off-screen.
Several scenes are taken straight out of the novel, but have the species of the dinosaur changed. In the novel, the visitors see an Apatosaurus, not a Brachiosaur, upon their arrival. The sick animal they encounter during the tour is a Stegosaurus, rather than a Triceratops. Grant and the children are caught up in a herd of Hadrosaurs, rather than Gallimimuses. While the Velociraptors are used in both the novel and the movie, their behavior is in fact more consistent with Deinonychus.
Steven Spielberg chose to cast Wayne Knight after seeing his acting performance in Basic Instinct (1992), saying, "I waited for the credits to roll and wrote his name down."
Steven Spielberg, who would later inherit A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001) from director Stanley Kubrick, makes his first homage to Kubrick in this film. Tim and Lex's evasion of the raptors parallels Danny and Wendy outwitting Jack in The Shining (1980).
(at around 1h 28 mins) Hammond repeatedly tells everybody very proudly "We've spared no expense." After the park goes completely to hell and his beloved grandchildren and Dr. Grant go missing, he talks with Dr. Sattler. He tries to explain the park to her, and she points out that the park was always doomed. Hammond is clearly completely broken, and she tries to make him feel better by complimenting the ice-cream, and he once again says, without any of his previous pride, "We spared no expense..."
(at around 1h 30 mins) Lysine is an amino acid, one of the 'building blocks' of protein. Specifically, it is one of nine 'essential' amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be consumed in food. Sources of lysine include eggs, meat, soy, milk, Parmesan cheese, fish, and most grains and legumes. The lysine contingency plan called for withholding lysine from the dinosaurs' diets in order to kill them, if necessary. It was included in the construction of the animals' DNA so they could only survive with the diets provided in the park, i.e., they could not survive off the island. However, death by lack of lysine would take a long time, several weeks and even longer for the meat eaters since digestion of meat produces lysine. Hammond was against using the plan for the obvious reason... he didn't want to kill off all the dinosaurs, lose his investment, and be forced to start all over again. It might also be said that he felt a small compassion for his creations (which is why he screamed at Grant over the phone when he heard him shooting at the Raptors). While he certainly felt an attachment to the animals a more plausible explanation of his decision can be ascertained by his exclamation to John Arnold that 'people are dying!' Arnold was adamant he didn't want to be responsible for rebooting the park systems as they may not have come back on at all and seemed more in favour of Muldoon's suggestion to use the lysine contingency. However this would have taken too long to come into effect whereas 'theoretically' rebooting the system would have given them almost immediate control.
Joseph Mazzello also had a playful relationship with the adult cast members, such as Jeff Goldblum, who'd entertain the kids by coming up with skits for them to perform during downtime. "The entire cast was so warm and friendly to us kids. You know, we never felt like outsiders. Or we never felt, like, condescended to. We felt like part of the gang," he said. "It was just a really just warm and sort of fun atmosphere whenever Jeff was around. It was awesome."
Attributed with changing the way movies were made in the future, after utilizing the best technology Industrial Light & Magic had available. ILM wanted the dinosaurs to move naturally, so they studied animal behavior, movements, and body language of elephants, alligators, ostriches, and lions. The graphic designers received special training, including movement lessons, to capture dinosaur behavioral nuances.
The Jeep being chased by the T. Rex (at around 1h 20 mins) was inspired by Hatari! (1962).
Claire Danes was among those considered for the role of Lex.
Isla Nublar is Research Team 93, according to Jurassic Park merchandise. This movie was one of the most merchandised movies of 1993.
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(at around 1h 55 mins) The Raptors about to jump on Grant, Ellie, Lex, and Tim, were both CGI.
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Dennis Quaid, Kevin Costner, Mel Gibson, and Robin Williams were considered for the role of Alan Grant.
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Steven Spielberg and Kathleen Kennedy began recruiting the design team in the Summer of 1990. They wanted the freedom to create a reality, where their imaginations were unrestricted in Hawaii, on soundstages, or through CGI.
Phil Tippett acted as a consultant on dinosaur anatomy on the movie.
The Triceratops scene was a logistical nightmare for Stan Winston when Steven Spielberg moved up the shoot of the animatronics. It took eight puppeteers to operate it in Kauai. Gary Rydstrom combined the sound of it breathing into a cardboard tube with the cows near his workplace at Skywalker ranch to create the vocals.
Location shooting began on Kauai in August, 1992, for three weeks. Kauai was chosen, because it was the perfect environment, if you wanted to see a dinosaur, and it was strong visually. Steven Spielberg wanted the park to look as real as possible.
Steven Spielberg considered hiring Bob Gurr to do the full-size dinosaurs because he was impressed with his apes in the "Kongfrontation" ride at Universal Studios.
Steven Spielberg lost the Oscar for Best Director to Sir Richard Attenborough, when Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) lost to Attenborough's Gandhi (1982). In this movie, Spielberg got to direct Attenborough, but he is not the only one associated with Gandhi (1982) that Spielberg has directed in his career: Amrish Puri and Roshan Seth in Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984); Sir Ben Kingsley in Schindler's List (1993); Sir Nigel Hawthorne in Amistad (1997); Martin Sheen in Catch Me If You Can (2002), and Daniel Day-Lewis in Lincoln (2012).
Dinosaur experts Jack Horner and Robert Bakker were consulted before making the movie, and both were name-checked in the novel as well.
Bob Peck was allowed to keep the prop Franchi SPAS-12 after filming was finished.
TIME Magazine and the Scholastic Dinosaur Encyclopedia mention that Steven Spielberg, in appreciation of inspiration and guidance from a number of paleontology experts, donated $25,000 to the Dinosaur Society for excavations in China. This gesture gave him the right to name a recently discovered type of ankylosaur "Jurassosaurus nedegoapeferima", the latter designation an acronym of the movie's leading actors Sam Neill, Laura Dern, Jeff Goldblum, Richard Attenborough, Bob Peck, Martin Ferrero, Ariana Richards and Joseph Mazzello. Paleontologist Dong Zhiming later on changed the first name to Tianchisaurus, which means 'heavenly pool lizard', after the Lake Tianchi site where he had found the skeleton.
When a young Elijah Wood presented the Oscar for Best Visual Effects, a T-Rex emerged from behind him with the envelope.
(at around 1h 7 mins) While it is unclear whether he soiled his underwear upon experiencing the T-Rex knocking the toilet down around him, it is clear that Gennaro only ran to the toilet to hide from the dinosaur. In several shots, you can see that he is still wearing his khaki shorts when the T-Rex finds and eats him. A scene similar to this appeared in the book, though the unfortunate victim was Ed Regis, who does not appear in the film. Ed Regis is present during the main road attack in the book, and like Gennaro, he abandons the children upon seeing the T-Rex. The book makes clear that Regis wets himself. The film shows a toilet nearby the road instead, which Gennaro runs to.
One unused storyboard for Hammond's ultimately discarded death was that he was originally going to be killed by the velociraptors, John Hammond is in Jurassic Park's control room during the climax when the Raptors have broken out of their pen and have entered the Visitor Center. John Hammond, with an incubator of eggs he plans to take with him upon leaving the park to "save it", hears Lex screaming downstairs. He opens the door to the control room to help, but is greeted by a Raptor. Hammond falls backward, crashing on a tabletop model of Jurassic Park that is on display in the control room (which was to be very similar to the one we see in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018)), as the Raptor digs its claws deep into his chest. The incubator shatters to the floor, breaking one of the eggs while another remains unharmed. Later on, Grant finds Hammond in the control room, barely alive, as he tells Grant that he always knew the "first batch of DNA was too unstable" and that he was looking forward to working with him at the park. He then dies as the two men are framed by the destroyed model of Jurassic Park. Then, the one unharmed egg from before cracks open, revealing an infant Triceratops. other versions of his death are of Hammond simply being left behind on the island, either by his choice or by accident. Some art and storyboards of this idea were done by Art Director John Bell, with a version of this scripted in Malia Scotch Marmo's screenplay that followed both Michael Crichton's and the one the tabletop Raptor death was from.
Despite having the normal parts for a seat belt in the Jeeps it is noticable that ther seatbelts themselves were removed from the vehicles. This is just one more detail showing how Ingen believed they had more control than they really did and thus cut corners in terms of certain simple safety and security measures in the park.
Kurt Russell and William Hurt were both considered for the role of Dr. Grant but were ultimately rejected as their salary requests were to exorbitant.
(at around 54 mins) The shot of the wave crashing over the sea wall was actual footage of storm surge from Hurricane Iniki when it hit Kauai.
Mike Trcic expressed disappointment with the popularity of the T-rex design in an interview with Shannon Shea (who worked with Trcic on Jurassic Park). In the interview, he said regarding how popular the design had become, "Whenever I search Google images for a Tyrannosaurus Rex [sic], most of the art I see is based on the original JP Rex. It's a shame that people just accept that somehow it is what a T-Rex [sic] looked like. It's limiting because unless someone can travel back 65 million years, how can anyone be completely sure?"
Because Stan Winston wanted the Brachiosaurus in Jurassic Park to appear docile, the animatronic for the dinosaur was given a 4-axis jaw that allowed its jaw to move from side to side reminiscent of a cow chewing cud. It was the largest puppet that Stan Winston Studios built for the film that did not use any hydraulics. The animatronic head and neck was eight feet tall. Its sneeze was created from K-Y jelly, green and yellow food colorings, and a food thickener.
Speaking on stage at a London screening, screenwriter David Koepp said of working on the Steven Spielberg-directed film: 'The problem I encountered, and I still encounter today when I work with Steven, is his movies are so influential, you have a tendency to create something you think he'll like. 'I kind of wanted to just type for him. You have to let that go. He doesn't need acolytes, he needs collaborators. The opening scene in my first draft was at a hospital in Costa Rica where somebody's flown in on a helicopter and said it's a terrible construction accident. 'I wrote a really good scene where this ER doctor looks at this guy, a person's who's been ripped to shreds and says "this is not a construction accident" 'He said "I love your opening I can't do it though, because I feel like I already did it." I said "what? When?" He said "yeah, it's in Jaws" I said "Oh yeah, right! I love that!"' 'That's a peril. You've got to write stuff you think is great, then he brings his stuff to it, rather than you trying to think ahead and write what you think he would want.'
(at around 6 mins) The machine used at the digsite in snakewater Montana Is called a ground penetrating radar gun.
The story of John Hammond and his dinosaur island is set in Costa Rica. But the 1993 film adaptation barely mentions Costa Rica, and when it does, it's notably wrong. One memorable scene purportedly depicts San José as a small, dusty beach town with chickens crowing in the background. Even if you give the movie the benefit of the doubt, all of San José province is landlocked, too. More recently, Dean Cundey, director of photography for "Jurassic Park," said he had considered filming the movie in Costa Rica because the story "takes place on an island." As always, Costa Rica continues to not be an island.
According to Rick Galinson: "I remember when we finished Batman Returns [at Stan Winston Studio] we sat in a room. They called us in because we knew we had Jurassic Park and all the mechanics came in to be assigned characters and they said, "Okay, well, who's read the book?", and we all pretty much had. "Well, who wants to work on the T-Rex?" and a bunch of people raised their hands and they wrote their names down. "Who wants to work on the Triceratops?" People raised their hands. "Who wants to work on the Spitter?" Well, I had just been in this industry maybe a year, very green, very naïve to a lot of the techniques we'd be using and I raised my hand thinking I was going to be the assistant mechanic to Richard Landon or one of the guys who had been there for a long time. Well, I was the only person who raised my hand [for the Spitter job] so they wrote my name down and that was it. That was how quickly the decisions were made, that this is your character, you're fully responsible for it, go ahead and build it. I kept quiet and I was scared to death, but I didn't know how much I had bitten off here. If they knew how little I knew, they would never have given me the assignment, but it turned out well. I was a fast learner, watched the other guys build things and took cues from them and it turned out great. This was one of the coolest tongues I've ever done. It's a two-stage tentacle mechanism and the third section was the base of it which would also rotate up and down. So, the tongue would go left and right, up and down, each section of the tongue. And then underneath are those two giant holes which led to tubing running down through the neck of the [Spitter] and that's where we pumped the high pressure air which would spit [the venom] out of its mouth. We used a paintball mechanism to get the Spitter to actually spit its venom out at Nedry (Wayne Knight). I believe the spit was made out of methacyl and K-Y® Jelly with some food coloring mixed in and it would actually spit from the mouth of the dinosaur. It wasn't a trick. At Stan Winston Studio, when we practiced it, there was no moisture in the air to speak of, and so compressed air shooting out of the mouth looked like nothing. It was invisible. Looked great. But when we got on the stage and there was rain and water everywhere, high humidity, as the compressed air came out, it became a cloud, and it gave away the gag. We spent a lot of time practicing discrete moves, controlling the arm movements, fingers, tail and head. It's important to fine-tune the performance and not just move back and forth really quickly to see that it can actually move, but to be able to follow another character around, to make eye contact with somebody to size them up. We had to do a lot of practice with Shane Mahan carrying the weight of the creature. [SWS artist] Mark Jurinko is in the back holding the cables coming out the back of the rig. Those cables would go to controllers and would have to travel with the Spitter as she walks across the scene. The leg mechanisms had a lot of free movement in the hip, knee, ankle. Shane would operate them with the handles on the bottom so he can make the left and right legs move as he wants to while he actually takes a step with his body. The Spitter would have the same gait as the puppeteer below. We had some issues with momentum and inertia as the creature tried to walk - as the mass of the Spitter moved left and right - it kind of torqued the puppeteer down below a little bit and could tip him over if we wasn't careful. There was a trench in the floor of the set for the Spitter and Shane would walk underneath the set supporting the creature and then the rest of us would be upstairs operating the hands, and the tail, and the head movements. The Spitter was my favorite character to date. Working on Jurassic Park at Stan Winston Studio was the experience of a lifetime. I couldn't have gotten a luckier break. The film was fantastic. The people we worked with were great, and this is one of those films that will last forever. I hope you've enjoyed this exclusive look behind the scenes".
The last three weeks of principal photography were devoted exclusively to shooting the T-rex scenes on the largest sound- stage at Warner Bros. Studio. Prior to filming, the T-rex rig had been transported to Warner Bros. without its outer skin attached so that Winston's crew could test the hydraulics on stage before enclosing the mechanical armature in foam rubber. After all the hydraulics were tested and hooked up, a crew stayed late one night to glue the foam rubber skin onto the construct. "We had to actually pull the skin on, glue it down from the inside, and sew it all up once we were there," said Alan Scott. "The skins were so long, you could only reach in a couple of feet from either end; and so, there was this whole section in the middle that you could only glue down by crawling into the armature. It had to be done in the sculpted position, too. The T-rex had to be powered up and held in that pose." Scott volunteered for the job, climbing inside the rig with a bucket of glue and a brush. "If the power was shut off for some reason," said Scott, "the head would move from its powered-up position to its powered-down position - and all of the hydraulic cylinders and sheets of metal inside would move. So, as I was crawling inside this thing, I said to the guy on the controls: 'Don't shut it down, and make sure nobody trips on this cord. I'm going to be inside, and if this thing moves, with all those hydraulics inside, I'm dead.'" Scott was well inside the interior of the rig, slapping glue onto the underside of the skin when, as Murphy's Law would have it, the power went out in the entire studio. "Suddenly, I could hear the hydraulics stop and the power start going down. And I could hear a muffled shout from outside, 'There's someone inside the T-rex!' All I could think of were these big hydraulic cylinders and giant metal sheets shearing across each other, with me in the middle of it all. I pulled my hands and legs in as tightly to my chest as I could, and just stayed like that, hoping no part of my body would get caught in all that moving metal. It wasn't until it came to a complete rest that I realized I wasn't going to get hurt. The head dropped down until the nose was a couple of feet from the ground, and three or four guys pried open the jaw and pulled me out." The power and potential danger of the T-rex was never far from Stan Winston's - or any crewmember's - mind, as they had all witnessed it up close and personal during trial runs at the studio. "Whenever we saw it glitch even a little bit, it was scary," Scott said. "When we were testing it in the shop, because of the relatively small space there, we'd be standing right next to it as this wall of flesh and machinery came roaring toward us. It was very unsettling." Despite the danger, Stan Winston Studio had accomplished an incredible feat, building the biggest, most director-friendly mechanical actor of all time. That achievement was just one of many realized for Jurassic Park, easily the most exciting project of Winston's career to that point. "We had more fun creating dinosaurs for Jurassic Park than we'd ever had before," Winston said. "I think that fun mirrored the fun that John Hammond, the character in the movie, was having in creating his dinosaurs. In the story, he was creating something that had never been done before, and so were we. He wanted to entertain the world by letting them see real dinosaurs for the first time, and so did we."
Jack Horner was such a strong advocate for dinosaurs being portrayed as bird-like that he even suggested that they should have brightly colored feathers. Spielberg won that argument because "Technicolor feathered dinosaurs are not going to scare anyone."
In every movie where there is a dangerous animal caged up somewhere; there is always one person who is stupid enough to put their hand in the cage or box; and then there's a shocking scene where the animal starts to bite their arm off. The beginning of Jurassic Park has this scene; also Cat People has this scene; also Gremlins; also Creepshow.
One thing the production crew wasn't satisfied with, was the Dilophosaurus. Specifically, that they couldn't find a convincing way to make it move on-screen. Every attempt either seemed too light or heavy for its body, so in the end they compromised and had it stand still in every shot.
Another iconic moment in the film sees Dr. Grant, Dr. Sattler, Ian Malcolm and assorted park employees attempting to treat a Triceratops with a bad stomach. They check it over, inspect its eyes, and Sam Neil even takes a moment to appreciate the miraculous beauty of the creature. But in a decision that probably went down incredibly badly with the people who designed the creatures, the Triceratops was originally bright and colourful. Purples, greens, yellows, its hide was one of the most visually stunning things in the entire film, until Effects Coordinator Stan Winston took one look at it, decided it didn't match its surroundings well enough, and covered it in mud.
The irony in the phrase 'spared no expense', is that the power outages and the ultimate collapse of the park is down to the actions of Dennis Nedry, a man we discover is only working there because of how low his bid was to run the park's systems. If Hammond had spared no expense there, none of this would have happened.
You can see Rexy/Robertas shadow on the floor of the Visitor Center a five-second foreshadowing right before she grabs the Velociraptor that was about to attack the protagonist's.
The mosquito trapped in amber (copal) is an elephant mosquito (Toxorhynchites), the only mosquito that doesn't drink blood, they live on sugary substances like nectar from flowers and sap of plants; therefore, it couldn't contain any dinosaur DNA.
Noriaki Yuasa, director of the early Gamera films, considered this the greatest monster film made because it was pure entertainment.
Grant wears a similar hat to Indiana Jones, except Grant's hat comes off while Indy's almost never does. Both characters are from Steven Spielberg movies.
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The roar of the T. Rex was performed by a male walrus.
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The first time dinosaurs have been depicted with CGI effects on film. Although CGI has moved on since, this movie is still considered to hold its own as one of the most thrilling in the field.
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The only movie in the franchise with a Dilophosaurus.
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Triceratops did indeed live in the jungle. The name means "three-horned face". The movie implies it had no protection from twentieth century plants, which could poison it.
Laura Dern's mother Diane Ladd also starred in a dinosaur film released in 1993. She played Dr. Jane Tiptree in Carnosaur (1993).
Any CGI shots of the T. Rex were done with wire frames at Industrial Light & Magic.
None of the dinosaurs featured in the movie are known to have existed in the Dominican Republic in the Mesozoic Era. Dominican amber is ten to thirty million years old, whereas dinosaurs died out sixty-five million years ago. But this is a fictional story, so the point is rendered moot.
Some believe Steven Spielberg cast Sir Richard Attenborough as John Hammond to thank him for his support on Oscar night when Gandhi (1982) beat E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982).
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(at around 1h 35 mins) In one scene, Ian Malcolm mentions the Pirates of the Caribbean ride at Disneyland. This movie came out a decade before Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl (2003) which is based on the Disneyland ride.
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(at around 31 mins) "Life Finds A Way" was voted #2 Greatest Movie Quotes by IGN.
"Spared no expense" was voted #3 Greatest Movie Quote by IGN.
(at around 1h 50 mins) When the SPAS-12 jams it appears to be an extractor malfunction, resulting in a shell in the breech holding back a loaded round from being chambered, commonly known as a "stovepipe". Such a jam is relatively straightforward to clear in reality, however it's likely Grant might not be familiar enough with firearms to know how to do so. The shells used in this scene are most likely dummy rounds given how fragile they appear.
Cameron Thor had previously worked with director Steven Spielberg on Hook (1991), and initially auditioned for the role of Malcolm before trying out for the role of Dodgson. Thor said about casting, "It just said 'shaving-cream can' in the script, so I spent endless time in a drug store to find the most photogenic. I went with Barbasol, which ended up in the movie. I was so broke that I took the can home after the audition to use it".
Jake Gyllenhaal was among those considered for the role of Tim.
Many fans assumed the raptor which attacks and mauls Muldoon is the Big One its actually the one watching him getting mauled, cause in hunting the leader hangs back and acts as bait while the lackeys or subordinates do the actual killing. Which is why Muldoon said that the Big One had the other two attacking the fences when the feeders came, while she herself did nothing.
Joseph Mazzello's favorite scenes included "anything that involved climbing." "I really had no fear heights as a kid," he revealed climbing on top of the electric fence was the most funniest.
(at around 1h 50 mins) One of Joseph Mazzello's most intense moments of filming was during the famous kitchen scene, when Tim is being chased into a freezer. "It was a raptor on wheels that was to follow me, and I'm supposed to go left, and it's supposed to go to the right," he recalled. "We did a bunch of takes. And one time I went left and I sort of turned around to look up and see the raptor turning the same way as me. And its claw, which was metal, hit me in the head because I was that height. And I fell down. I was a little bit dazed. It also was my birthday. I turned 9 years old. And so Steven (Steven Spielberg) after checking that I was okay, said, 'I think this is the perfect time for this,' and had the entire crew sing happy birthday to me.
The cast first interacted with Stan Winston's Triceratops, and it was important to Steven Spielberg that the movie succeeded from the first day of shooting, and after that scene, he knew they had. Winston felt that was a good scene into which to ease the crew, before they moved onto tougher stuff.
The only movie in the franchise that doesn't show a dinosaur (or any other prehistoric reptile) in the final shot. The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997) and Jurassic Park III (2001) had Pteranodons, Jurassic World (2015) had the famous T. Rex, and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018) had Blue the raptor.
Empire Magazine called the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus the 27th most magical moment in cinema.
Isla Nublar is stated to be one hundred twenty miles west of Costa Rica. However, there are no islands, of any size, west of Costa Rica for more than five thousand miles (eight thousand kilometers). Good thing this is a fictional story, otherwise the filmmakers would have a lot of explaining to do.
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Steven Spielberg's first toy was a Triceratops, which led to a fascination with dinosaurs, since they don't exist anymore, this interest culminated in the Jurassic Park film franchise.
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Unlike Lex, Grant and Tim never lose their fascination with dinosaurs, even after they've seen what they can do, like watching the T. Rex feed on a Gallimimus, while Lex only wants to leave.
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Samuel L. Jackson subsequently appeared in The Long Kiss Goodnight (1996), which starred Geena Davis and was directed by Renny Harlin. Davis and Harlin were married at the time, and Laura Dern and Jeff Goldblum became a couple after working together on this film. Dern had previously had a relationship with Harlin, while Goldblum had previously been married to Davis.
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Malia Scotch Marmo did some re-writes on the final script, but remains uncredited.
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The audience doesn't see a dinosaur fully until fifteen minutes into the movie, when Grant, Ellie, Malcolm, Hammond, and Gennaro see the Brachiosaur.
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Steven Spielberg wanted the dinosaurs to be life-size at first, but deemed the idea too expensive and unconvincing.
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The blip sound on the Silicon Graphics computers, and the blip on the Apple Macintosh Quadra 700, is a blip sound from a Motorola cell phone.
Production moved to Red Rock Canyon State Park in Cantil, California, chosen for its similarities to a Montana dinosaur dig, where Sam Neill and Laura Dern filmed their first scene. They were coached by Jack Horner, the premier paleontologist and curator of paleontology at Bozeman, Montana's Museum of the Rockies.
Samuel L. Jackson appeared in two recurring roles: Mace Windu in the Star Wars prequels, and Nick Fury in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Laura Dern appeared in Star Wars: Episode VIII - The Last Jedi (2017), while Sam Neill and Jeff Goldblum appeared in Thor: Ragnarok (2017). Neither franchise allowed Jackson to work opposite his former castmates again.
Another change to Lex's character was that she was more sporty in the novel.
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Editor Michael Kahn had a rough cut of the movie prepared just a few days after filming wrapped.
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During the early stages, Go-Motion was considered to animate all the dinosaurs, except for the Gallimimus herd, where Dennis Muren insisted that be done with the then emergent CGI.
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(at around 1h 4 mins) The second choice for the role of Ian Malcolm was Jim Carrey. He and Jeff Goldblum appeared in Earth Girls Are Easy (1988). Carrey also appeared in Ace Ventura: Pet Detective (1994), in which he remarks "Man, I'm tired of being right!" In this movie, Malcolm says "Boy, do I hate being right all the time!"
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Phil Tippett's animatic version of the kitchen scene, was essentially the same, except the Raptors had snake tongues, the freezer door was shut, Tim fell by the door, and there were two exits; Lex and Tim went through the second one, et cetera.
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Dennis Muren doubted a real T. Rex would look like the one in the movie. It wouldn't be as aggressive, because when bears fight on their hind legs, they can only do it for six to seven seconds before collapsing. Dinosaurs that did the same would wear them out. However, that is only speculation.
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Phil Tippett created dinosaur miniatures, while Stan Winston provided full size robots. Michael Lantieri supervised interactions between actors, actresses, and the sets. Dennis Muren led Industrial Light & Magic with combining these elements on film in post-production.
Go-Motion was used to see how the dinosaurs moved, but Steven Spielberg was very keen on the effects lacking any Go-Motion jerkiness; while his children bought into the early animations, he didn't.