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Manila in the Claws of Light (1975)

Maynila sa mga kuko ng liwanag (original title)
Not Rated | | Drama, Mystery | 16 July 1975 (Philippines)
Júlio Madiaga, a 'provinciano', arrives in Manila to search for Ligaya, his loved one.


Lino Brocka


Edgardo Reyes (novel), Clodualdo Del Mundo Jr. (screenplay)
8 wins & 2 nominations. See more awards »


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Cast overview, first billed only:
Hilda Koronel ... Ligaya Paraiso
Bembol Roco ... Julio Madiaga (as Rafael Roco Jr.)
Lou Salvador Jr. Lou Salvador Jr. ... Atong
Joonee Gamboa ... Omeng
Pio De Castro III Pio De Castro III ... Imo
Danilo Posadas Danilo Posadas ... Benny
Joe Jardi Joe Jardi ... Frank (as Joseph Jardinazo)
Spanky Manikan ... Gido
Edipolo Erosido Edipolo Erosido ... Eddie
Pancho Pelagio Pancho Pelagio ... Mr. Balajadia
Purita Yap Purita Yap ... Nanay
Josephine Gutierrez Josephine Gutierrez ... Kapatid ni Ligaya
Gina Zegui Gina Zegui ... Kapatid ni Ligaya
Ronnie Magalong Ronnie Magalong ... Kapatid ni Ligaya
Anna Marie Nicolas Anna Marie Nicolas ... Batang Ligaya


Julio Madiaga, a simple fisherman from the province, travels to Manila to find Ligaya, the woman he loves, after she went away with a mysterious woman promising a better future in the City. When he arrives, he becomes immersed in the city lifestyle and gets involved with its inhabitants experiencing extreme poverty, hard luck, and the overbearing need to grind for daily sustention. While Julio relentlessly searches for Ligaya, the city changes him little by little, becoming like an animal doomed to live only for survival in a wild jungle with no way out. Written by Terrence16

Plot Summary | Add Synopsis


Drama | Mystery


Not Rated | See all certifications »





Filipino | Tagalog | English

Release Date:

16 July 1975 (Philippines) See more »

Also Known As:

The Nail of Brightness See more »

Company Credits

Production Co:

Cinema Artists See more »
Show more on IMDbPro »

Technical Specs


Sound Mix:


Aspect Ratio:

1.85 : 1
See full technical specs »

Did You Know?


Jay Ilagan was supposed to play the role of Julio Madiaga. But due to his increasing weight problem, he had to quit. The role went to the newcomer Bembol Roco. See more »

Crazy Credits

The end credits are shown in black text over plain white background. See more »


Features King of Kings (1961) See more »

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User Reviews

a searing social critique told through the jeremiad of a young fishmonger from a provincial island
29 April 2017 | by lasttimeisawSee all my reviews

The linchpin of Filipino cinema, Lino Brocka's pièce de résistance has been received a well- deserved BluRay treatment, MANILA IN THE CLAWS OF LIGHT is a searing social critique told through the jeremiad of a young fishmonger from a provincial island, Julio Madiaga (the newcomer Roco purveys a deeply affecting performance as a new-in-town tenderfoot) arrives in the big city to search for his childhood sweetheart Ligaya (Koronel), who has been roped into shady prostitute ring from their hometown, only to be overcome by a society infested with moral turpitude and unspeakable vice, belonging to the lowest of the social rung, Julio is inexorably driven to a breaking point when he can only resort to the most radical method to express his fury and desperation, and his ultimate denouement is ominously preordained through the accretion of his violent impulse.

Brocka hones a critical eye in presenting the film's urban jungle milieu, shot in actual loci: the harsh conditions of those construction workers, one of them, Atong (Salvador, Jr.) with whom Julio befriends, lives in the squalid shanty with his younger sister (Mendoza) and their bed-ridden father (a landowner expelled out of his own property by wealthy foreigners), adjacent to polluted water, believe it or not, he is in a well-off situation (before the sorry fate catches on with his family); a chock-a-block local market where bargains for goods soon sour into personal attacks and that particular building where Julio suspects Ligaya is interned by a Chinese Filipino Ah-Tek (Yap), the rare seen ringleader, and its neon-lit signboard.

His pittance is shortchanged by the sleazy honcho and dangled by the intrusive oldest profession, sacked mercilessly when he is no longer needed, Julio witnesses accidental death befalls on the construction site, the indignant fate befalls on Atong and his family, still, he is too wet behind the ears, succumbs to the skulduggery of a policeman imposer on the street. The crescendo of injustice is which lends this film its cachet and its undimmed relevance, the whole drama probes an unyielding peer into the miasma of unrelieved depravity (just to plumb how pandemic this kind of pathology can reach with a deplorable cri-de-coeur), mirrored through Julio's nostalgic erstwhile memories (ultra-snappy edited), which we all but realize there is no way back.

An unexpected sortie in the rough trade virtually becomes the most benevolent segment among a concatenation of threnodies, where Julio reluctantly dips his toes with an epicene punter, which imbues a purely libidinous concern without any creeping malevolence, that is prevalent elsewhere. But, not everyone can find his feet in that line of business, the bar is quite high, actually. An non- judgmental take on the often pejoratively depicted subculture does flag up Brocka's unflinching resolution to spark more social commentary than he would be allowed.

Eventually, a chance meeting (a rather oddly conceived occasion wanting more context) reunites the star-crossed lovers, and Hilda Koronel recounts Ligaya's ordeal with palpable poignancy in the lengthy close-ups, only to be tritely weighed down by her inextricable maternal attachment, and spoils their final chance of a happier finale.

Upholstered with a perturbing score from Jocson, MANILA IN THE CLAWS OF LIGHT is as harrowing a story as one could envision, but under Brocka's stylish execution, it brims with an urgency to provoke, to shock, to jolt viewers into condemnation, only if he could have curtailed his exasperating anti-China slant, viewed 40-odd years later.

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