Doctor Who (1963–1989)
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One night in 1963, suspicious and concerned school teachers Ian Chesterton and Barbara Wright follow their mysterious new pupil Susan Foreman to a scrapyard. Ian and Barbara's curiosity leads them to discover Susan resides in a police box in the scrapyard. But, they are stunned to discover that the police box is a disguised time machine and that it belongs to Susan's grandfather, an short-tempered eccentric old man whom calls himself The Doctor. The Doctor claims that Susan and himself are not human and that they are both extra terrestrials from another planet in another century and that the time machine is called the TARDIS (Time and Relative Dimensions in Space) and that it can travel anywhere through space and time. However, The Doctor activates the TARDIS and the TARDIS vanishes and reappears on Earth in the stone age and it becomes the beginning of a legend. Edit (Coming Soon)
This and the 2005 series are the same show, with season 26 ending in 1989 and season 27 starting in 2005. The BBC and all other companies involved, classified the show, when is started up again in 2005, as a new, separate show, calling the 27th season, season 1. This was done to avoid confusion for new viewers. They mainly achieved the opposite, because, by classifying the 2005 pickup as a new show, they confused the large fan base that was already familiar with the old series. Many questions were raised with this "new show", some of them include:
Is this a reboot?
Is this a different Doctor?
Is this an alternate timeline?
When does this take place?
Is this a different actor playing the same Doctor?
The answer to most of those questions are: no. The 2005 series is completely canon, and a direct continuation with some time having passed between the 26th and 27th seasons. To avoid as little confusion as possible, without having a bunch of stuff explained to you from outside sources, this is how the shows and movie should be interpreted; There are seasons 1-26, following the first 7 Doctors' adventures, then, what one could call, season 26 1/2, which would be made up of the 1996 tv movie "Doctor Who", the mini episode "The Night of the Doctor", and an edited version of the episode "The Day of the Doctor". With "Day of the Doctor", having some of the scenes with exclusively Matt Smith and David Tennant chopped down or removed. A tiny bit confusing, but then we continue with season 27-33 and onward. Even if TV stations count the new seasons as different shows, websites like wikipedia and imdb need have them as the same show, it'd be a lot less confusing and a lot more convenient. Lots of shows have stopped for a while and continued later, one example is Futurama, that show ran from 1999 to 2003, then from 2008 to 2013. that was classified as one continuous show, and so should doctor who. Edit (Coming Soon)
This is never stated within the show.
According to the Doctor Who Wiki (Tardis Data Core), the First Doctor was taken from a point in time between "The Time Meddler" and "Galaxy 4", and the Second Doctor was taken from between "The Invasion" and "The Krotons".
With confirmed information, however, if you take into account that Jamie McCrimmon was originally intended to appear alongside the Second Doctor, then it may be inferred that the Second Doctor came from a point in the series during which Jamie was his only companion. If this is taken into account, then the candidates are either between "The Faceless Ones" and "The Power of the Daleks" or between "Fury from the Deep" and "The Wheel in Space." Since there is no gap between the latter couple of serials, that is most likely from when the Second Doctor arrives. However, there are no clues as to when the First Doctor arrives from. Edit (Coming Soon)
In theory, yes. It is possible.
In the webisode "Night of the Doctor" as he was dying (or more accurately already dead with minutes given back, similar to the echoes the tenth and eleventh Doctor's had) the Sisterhood of Karn gave him the option to control his regeneration. One of the options given to him was to have his ninth life be that of a woman. Also, the Master regenerates into a woman and stays in that regeneration throughout Series 8. In "Hell Bent" the Doctor shoots the General making him regenerate into black a woman (earlier he was a white male). This proves that a time-lord can regenerate into any gender or race. And in "The Doctor's Wife", he mentions another Time Lord named The Corsair, who had regenerations both as male and female. As to why gender flipping is apparently not commonly shown is not explained in the show and can currently only be guessed at. Edit (Coming Soon)
In the 2012 audio production of Doctor Who: The Companion Chronicles "The Catalyst", Leela survived the destruction of Gallifrey at the end of the Time War when it was destroyed by The War Doctor. However, Leela was captured and taken prison by a warrior race called the Z'Nai. The Z'Nai tortured and interrogated Leela for information on Gallifrey. Edit (Coming Soon)
Short answer: The Doctor can now regenerate up to 24 times, for a total of 25 incarnations.
Long answer: Typically a Time Lord can only regenerate 12 times, for a total of 13 incarnations. However there have been a few events during the run of the 2005 series that must be taken into count specifically for the Doctor.
(1) After the Eighth Doctor (played by Paul McGann) was fatally wounded in a spaceship crash, he regenerated into a man who became known as The War Doctor (played by John Hurt). Due to his involvement and actions during the Time War between the Time Lords and the Daleks, future incarnations of the Doctor would try to forget this life out of shame. Also, since he wasn't known as "The Doctor", he doesn't affect the out-of-story numbering of the Doctors. So when the War Doctor regenerated, he became the Ninth Doctor (played by Christopher Eccleston), who was the tenth incarnation. So instead of the Ninth Doctor having four lives left, he now only had three.
(2) During the life of the Tenth Doctor (played by David Tennant), there was an incident that became known as a Metacrisis Event. During this, the Doctor almost regenerated once more, but after using the energy to heal himself from a fatal injury, he channeled the rest of the energy into a severed limb of his own that had been cut off soon after Nine had regenerated into Ten. This and other factors resulted in a clone of him being created (which currently lives in a parallel and sealed off dimension). In effect, the regeneration was avoided. However the energy for that regeneration was still expended. In a way, he wasted a life to save his life. But this left him with only a single regeneration left instead of two.
(3) Due to the previously stated events, the Eleventh Doctor (played by Matt Smith) should had been the final incarnation of the Doctor. However prior to his death the Time Lords had escaped their destruction from the Time War, however they had not yet found a safe way to re-enter the world. So they gave charge to the Doctor the task of telling them when things were in the clear so they could return without triggering a second Time War. Unfortunately the Doctor came under threat from the Daleks and was at risk of dying, which would remove the Time Lords' one major protector in the universe itself. So they elected to gift him with a full new cycle of regenerations just prior to the Doctor's death. Then, the Eleventh Doctor regenerated once more. During this regenerations into an entirely new cycle, the Dalek ship was destroyed and Eleven regenerated into Twelve (played by Peter Capaldi).
As things are known currently, this means that the Doctor has eleven of the twelve new regenerations left. Currently being on the Twelfth Doctor, which is his fourteenth incarnation, and barring any more non-Doctor incarnations or further Metacrisis-like events, he should be able to regenerate up to the 23rd Doctor, which would effectively be his 25th incarnation. At least 2 future regeneration have been accounted for: The Curator from The Day of the Doctor (2013), who is most likely a future incarnation of the Doctor who has retired to a life of being the Curator of the Under-Gallery of the National Gallery. Also, the character known as the Valeyard, from , who was revealed to somewhat be an actual future incarnation of the Doctor in the audio-adventure, Trial of the Valeyard. Edit (Coming Soon)
This is also never stated within the show.
According to the Doctor Who Wikia...
First Doctor: Between "The Daleks' Master Plan" & "The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve". However, his appearance in The Day of the Doctor (2013) supposedly took place between "The Five Doctors" & "The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve".
Second Doctor: This is the first tricky part. Supposedly, between his Gallifreyan trial in "The War Games" and his regeneration into the Third Doctor in "Spearhead from Space", the Second Doctor's sentence was delayed by the CIA (Celestial Intervention Agency) & he was employed by them. So, technically his appearance was between "The War Games" & "Spearhead from Space", but also between The Day of the Doctor (2013) & "Spearhead from Space".
Third Doctor: Between "The Monster of Peladon" & "Planet of the Spiders".
Fourth Doctor: This is the second tricky part. The Fourth Doctor was taken during a Season 17 adventure, "Shada". Except there's one problem... Shada was never aired on television due to it being incomplete because of a workers' strike at the BBC. Also, it's unknown if it's considered canon, because there are reasons to support it being both canonical & non-canonical. Doctor Who: Shada (1992) was released in 1992 and starred Tom Baker, who provided voice-links between the un-filmed parts, making Shada seem canonical. However, Paul McGann played the Eighth Doctor, along w/ Lalla Ward returning as Romana II, in both webcast and audio form. These were considered non-canonical until... The Night of the Doctor (2013), when McGann returned for an actual mini-episode, where the Eighth Doctor confirmed the canonicity of the audio adventures, which includes a McGann-Ward "Shada". So, basically what it comes down to is canon. If you believe the original 1980 "Shada" is canon, then he was taken during "Shada". However, if you believe the McGann "Shada" is canon, then he was taken between "The Horns of Nimon" & "The Leisure Hive". Edit (Coming Soon)