Fritz Lang, who was fluent in French, simultaneously shot a French-language version under the title "Le Testament du Docteur Mabuse." The German cast members who were not fluent in French were replaced with French-speaking actors. Rudolf Klein-Rogge had his dialog replaced with an early form of dubbing.
The 2008 film The Dark Knight features a version of The Joker inspired by Mabuse. Throughout the film, the character recites monologues promoting chaos & disorder which borrow heavily from Mabuse's own in 1933's The Testament of Dr. Mabuse. Director Christopher Nolan has stated: "I think I made Jonah (Nolan's brother) watch Fritz Lang's Dr. Mabuse prior to writing the Joker.
In his autobiography "Timebends," Arthur Miller speculates that his unconscious mind picked the name "Loman" for Willy Loman, the protagonist of what many consider his greatest play, "Death of a Salesman" (1947), from the name of Kriminalkomissar Lohmann in this film.
As Fritz Lang made this film before the Nazis came to power, it might be considered as the first anti-Nazi propaganda film. As soon as they did come to power, the film was banned, and Lang felt it prudent to leave Germany very shortly afterwards.
The trivia item below may give away important plot points.
Like the Wizard of Oz, Dr. Mabuse leads unseen from behind a curtain. Ultimately, it is revealed that Dr. Baum is really the man leading the criminal organization (under Mabuse's spell). This appears to be an homage to the author of The Wizard of Oz books, L. Frank Baum.