German animator, a pioneer in silhouette cartoons whose work was based on the traditions of the oriental shadow theatre. Started with the Max Reinhardt Theatre Company in the late 1910s. Made her first full-length animated feature, The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926). During the 1930's, worked in Canada and in Britain (for the GPO Film Unit). Most of her output consisted of short films. Among many shadow plays for the BBC, she turned out her first silhouette color work with Jack and the Beanstalk (1956). She absented herself from the cinema for ten years following the death of her husband and collaborator, Carl Koch. In her later years, she lectured in shadow animation in Europe and the US.