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Sigmund Freud Poster

Biography

Jump to: Overview (4)  | Mini Bio (1)  | Spouse (1)  | Trade Mark (2)  | Trivia (26)  | Personal Quotes (54)

Overview (4)

Born in Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire [now Pribor, Czech Republic]
Died in London, England, UK  (mouth cancer)
Birth NameSigismund Schlomo Freud
Height 5' 7¾" (1.72 m)

Mini Bio (1)

Austrian neurologist and 'father of psychoanalysis'. Freud was born to Jacob Freud, a Jewish wool merchant, and Amalia (neé Nathansohn). The family settled in Vienna when Freud was young. In 1873 he started medicine at the University of Vienna, at which time he adopted the shortened form of his name, "Sigmund." Freud served a year of compulsory military service and got his M.D. in 1881. He then stayed on for another year as a demonstrator in the physiology laboratory. From 1882 to 1886, he worked as an assistant at the General Hospital in Vienna. During this period, Dr. Josef Breuer related to Freud how he had treated a young woman suffering from hysteria with 'talking cures' while in a state of self-hypnosis. This is considered the prototype of psychoanalysis. Late in 1885, Freud went to Paris on grant to study at the Salpetriere, a mental hospital, with the famed French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot. Charcot had pioneered the treatment of nervous disorders by hypnosis. On Freud's return to Vienna in 1886 he took up his post as lecturer in neuropathology at the university and also established a private practice in nervous diseases. In 1887 he established a close friendship with Wilhelm Fliess, the Berlin otolaryngologist, with whom he discussed his work and ideas. Fleiss is called "the midwife of psychoanalysis". In 1891 he and his family moved to an apartment at Berggasse, 19. Here for the next 45 years Freud did most of his psychoanalytical treatments on his patients. Freud's first published work was entitled 'On Aphasia, a Critical Study' (1891). Freud first used the term "psychoanalysis" for his new treatment in 1896. Some of his other famous works include: Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), Selected Papers on Hysteria and Other Psychoneuroses (1909) and The Interpretation of Dreams (1913). Freud was appointed "Professor Extraordinary" of Neurology at the University in 1902. The same year he had also begun to meet informally at Berggasse, 19, with a group of medical colleagues interested in learning about the new discipline. In 1909 Freud was invited to Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts, with Carl Jung and Sandor Ferenczi, to speak about his theories. An avid cigar smoker he developed cancer of the jaw in 1923. He underwent operations, radiotherapy and the discomfort of an oral prosthetic device that to some extent affected his speech. In 1930 the city of Frankfurt awarded Freud its Goethe Prize for work that had "opened access to the driving forces of the soul." He was elected in 1936 a corresponding member of the Royal Society of London (in the company of Newton and Darwin). The growing danger of anti-Semitism and Nazi persecution made it apparent that the Freuds would suffer the fate of other Jews if they stayed in Vienna. With the help of US government officials Freud, his wife and daughter Anna were allowed to leave Austria. It was Freud's wish to "die in freedom," and so he did in his new home at 20 Maresfield Gardens, which is now the Freud Museum.

- IMDb Mini Biography By: Sujit R. Varma

Spouse (1)

Martha Bernays (14 September 1886 - 23 September 1939) ( his death) ( 6 children)

Trade Mark (2)

Commercialising the Friendly Chat.
Angling for the wider therapeutic use of cocaine.

Trivia (26)

His father was a Jewish wool merchant.
When only eight years old, Sigmund was reading the works of Shakespeare.
Considered studying law.
His two half-brothers, Emmanuel and Philipp, were almost the same age as his mother, Amalia. She was the third wife of his father, Jacob Freud, who was twenty years her senior.
Father of Anna Freud. Grandfather of Lucian Freud. Great-grandfather of Esther Freud, Matthew Freud, Bella Freud, and Emma Freud.
Even Freud's patients are celebrities. He wrote papers about them using pseudonyms but their real names are well known among psychoanalytic circles. The most famous include: Bertha Pappenheim/"Anna O" (hysteria), Ida Bauer/"Dora"(hysteria), Herbert Graf/"Little Hans" (phobia), Ernst Lanzer/"the Rat Man" (obsessive behavior), Daniel Schreber (paranoia) and Sergius Pankejeff/"the Wolf Man" (deep neurosis).
His major academic regret was that he did not get the Nobel Prize which he had long coveted. The psychiatric community remained hostile to his 'sexual' theories and even Albert Einstein refused to support Freud's candidacy.
The apartment where he and his family lived in Vienna at Berggasse 19 is now the 'Sigmund Freud Museum'.
The father of psychoanalysis also laid the groundwork for the psychoanalytical societies of the world. In 1908, the Wednesday Psychological Society (as it was called), which met at Freud's home, was reconstituted as the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society - the first such society. When similar societies were formed in other cities of the world - they too held their meetings on Wednesday evenings!
Buried at Golders Green Crematorium Cemetery located on Hoop Lane, London, England, UK. There are dozens of notable and very famous people buried there.
In his last year, after the German annexation of Austria, Freud, as a Jew (and his ideas also being a red flag to the Nazis) realized he must leave the country. He got visas for himself and his family to Great Britain, but only after being questioned by the Gestapo. As the affair became news in Western Europe, they demanded that Freud declare he had not been maltreated by the German police; he did so (see under "Personal quotes") and left for London.
Grandfather of Clement Freud.
Children: Mathilde (1887-1978), Jean Martin (1889-1967), Oliver (1891-1969), Ernest Ludwig (1892-1970), Sophie (1893-1920) and Anna (1895-1982).
His hobbies were hiking and gathering wild mushrooms, usually at the same time.
The Freud Museum - 20 Maresfield Gardens, London NW3 5SX - is the very same North London location where Freud once lived.
In Philip K Dick's Science Fiction work "The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch", stress in the futuristic society described is measured in units called "Freuds".
Inspired the word "Freudian".
Psychoanalysis had an influence on the Surrealist Art Movement. The story goes that Salvador Dali was keen to show Freud his painting "The Transformation of Narcissus", saying that it was a painting of his subconscious. Freud was dismissive, saying "See, this man is a classic Spanish Stereotype, a fanatic!".
Lampooned on the Friends Series.
Mentioned in "Girl Interrupted".
Mentioned in the Edward Albee play "Zoo Story".
His daughter Anna Freud went straight into a similar line of work, and the Anna Freud Centre is directly next to the Freud Museum, his former home.
Interestingly, his name sounds like the German word for Joy: "Freude". So he was "Dr. Joy".
On one occasion, a patient wanted to stop an analysis session so that he could go home and eat. Freud cooked him some fish so they could continue.
Many Young Men are Sectioned for having hostile relationships, or angry rows, with their Mothers. But according to the Oedipus Complex, this is Healthy, or at least preferable...
A fan of the Occult Text Pseudomonarchia Daemonum by Ioannis Vieri, calling it one of the most important books of all time.

Personal Quotes (54)

If a man has been his mother's undisputed darling, he retains throughout life the triumphant feeling, the confidence in success, which not seldom brings actual success along with it.
Dogs love their friends and bite their enemies, quite unlike people, who are incapable of pure love and always have to mix love and hate in their object-relations.
The first human who hurled an insult instead of a stone was the founder of civilization.
Only the real, rare, true scientific minds can endure doubt, which is attached to all our knowledge. [in a letter to Princess Marie Bonaparte]
The child is psychologically father of the adult.
The great question...which I have not been able to answer, despite my 30 years of research into the feminine soul, is 'What does a woman want?'.
Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar.
Wherever I go, I find a poet has been there before me.
How bold one gets when one is sure of being loved.
If the sole reason why you must not kill your neighbor is because God has forbidden it and will severely punish you for it in this or the next life - then, when you learn that there is no God and that you need not fear His punishment, you will certainly kill your neighbor without hesitation, and you can only be prevented from doing so by mundane force. Thus either these dangerous masses must be held down most severely and kept most carefully away from any chance of intellectual awakening, or else the relationship between civilization and religion must undergo a fundamental revision.
Before the problem of the artist, analysis must, alas, lay down its arms.
I have found little that is "good" about human beings on the whole. In my experience most of them are trash, no matter whether they publicly subscribe to this or that ethical doctrine or to none at all. That is something that you cannot say aloud, or perhaps even think.
Our recognition that the ruling tendency of psychic life... is the struggle for reduction, keeping at a constant level, or removal of the inner stimulus tension - a struggle which comes to expression in the pleasure-principle - is indeed one of our strongest motives for believing in the existence of death-instincts.
The paranoid is always not entirely mistaken.
Even paranoids have enemies.
Dreams are the Royal Road to the Subconscious.
[on reading Jung's "Psychological Types"] There [can] be no [variance in] 'objective truth' in psychology because of personal differences in the observer's constitution.
[Confronted with Goethe's Complete Works in Weimar] To think he wrote all of that in order not to show himself.
Religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis.
Religion is an attempt to get control over the sensory world, in which we are placed, by means of the wish-world, which we have developed inside us as a result of biological and psychological necessities. [...] If one attempts to assign to religion its place in man's evolution, it seems not so much to be a lasting acquisition, as a parallel to the neurosis which the civilized individual must pass through on his way from childhood to maturity.
My language is German. My culture, my attainments are German. I considered myself German intellectually, until I noticed the growth of anti-Semitic prejudice in Germany and German Austria. Since that time, I prefer to call myself a Jew.
Religion is an illusion and it derives its strength from the fact that it falls in with our instinctual desires.
A religion, even if it calls itself a religion of love, must be hard and unloving to those who do not belong to it.
The whole thing is so patently infantile, so foreign to reality, that to anyone with a friendly attitude to humanity it is painful to think that the great majority of mortals will never be able to rise above this view of life. It is still more humiliating to discover how a large number of people living today, who cannot but see that this religion is not tenable, nevertheless try to defend it piece by piece in a series of pitiful rearguard actions.
Our knowledge of the historical worth of certain religious doctrines increases our respect for them, but does not invalidate our proposal that they should cease to be put forward as the reasons for the precepts of civilization. On the contrary! Those historical residues have helped us to view religious teachings, as it were, as neurotic relics, and we may now argue that the time has probably come, as it does in an analytic treatment, for replacing the effects of repression by the results of the rational operation of the intellect
The different religions have never overlooked the part played by the sense of guilt in civilization. What is more, they come forward with a claim...to save mankind from this sense of guilt, which they call sin.
Psychoanalysis is The Impossible Profession.
Fear of weapons is a sign of retarded sexual and emotional maturity.
You wanted to kill your father so that you could become your father. Now you are your father but you are a dead father.
[Eros & Thanatos] Every neurotic is either Hamlet or Oedipus.
There are certain people who behave in quite a peculiar fashion during the work of analysis. When one speaks hopefully to them or expresses satisfaction with the progress of the treatment, they show signs of discontent and their condition invariably becomes worse. One begins by regarding this as defiance and as an attempt to prove their superiority to the physician, but later one comes to take a deeper and juster view. One becomes convinced, not only that such people cannot endure any praise or appreciation, but that they react inversely to the progress of the treatment. Every partial solution that ought to result, and in other people does result, in an improvement or a temporary suspension of symptoms produces in them an exacerbation of their illness; they get worse during the treatment instead of getting better. They exhibit what is known as a "negative therapeutic reaction". There is no doubt that there is something in these people that sets itself against recovery, and its approach is dreaded as though it were a danger. We are accustomed to say that the need for illness has got the upper hand in them over the desire for recovery. If we analyze this resistance in the usual way -then, even after allowance has been made for an attitude of defiance towards the physician and for fixation to the various forms of gain from illness, the greater part of it is still left over, and this reveals itself as the most powerful of all obstacles to recovery, more powerful than the familiar ones of narcissistic inaccessibility, a negative attitude towards the physician and clinging to the gain from illness. In the end we come to see that we are dealing with what may be called a "moral" factor, a sense of guilt, which is finding its satisfaction in the illness and refuses to give up the punishment of suffering. We shall be right in regarding this disheartening explanation as final. But as far as the patient is concerned this sense of guilt is dumb; it does not tell him he is guilty, he does not feel guilty, he feels ill. This sense of guilt expresses itself only as a resistance to recovery which it is extremely difficult to overcome. It is also particularly difficult to convince the patient that this motive lies behind his continuing to be ill; he holds fast to the more obvious explanation that treatment by analysis is not the right remedy for his case.
Where does a thought go when it's forgotten?
In so doing, the idea forces itself upon him that religion is comparable to a childhood neurosis, and he is optimistic enough to suppose that mankind will surmount this neurotic phase, just as so many children grow out of their similar neurosis
There are no mistakes
Most people do not really want freedom, because freedom involves responsibility, and most people are frightened of responsibility
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity
No, our science is no illusion. But an illusion it would be to suppose that what science cannot give us we can get elsewhere
Neurotics complain of their illness, but they make the most of it, and when it comes to taking it away from them they will defend it like a lioness her young.
He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore.
We are never so defenseless against suffering as when we love
Unexpressed emotions will never die. They are buried alive and will come forth later in uglier ways
Religious doctrines ... are all illusions, they do not admit of proof, and no one can be compelled to consider them as true or to believe in them
It is impossible to escape the impression that people commonly use false standards of measurement - that they seek power, success and wealth for themselves and admire them in others, and that they underestimate what is of true value in life.
The intention that man should be happy is not in the plan of Creation.
My love is something valuable to me which I ought not to throw away without reflection.
Not understanding reproduction is surely the mark of the lowliest savage.
I cannot think of any need in childhood as strong as the need for a father's protection.
Some time ago I analyzed a colleague who had developed a particularly strong dislike of the idea of anyone being allowed to engage in a medical activity who was not himself a medical man. I was in a position to say to him: 'We have now been working for more than three months. At what point in our analysis have I had occasion to make use of my medical knowledge?' He admitted that I had had no such occasion
The first consideration is that in his medical school a doctor receives a training which is more or less the opposite of what he would need as a preparation for psychoanalysis. Neurotics, indeed, are an undesired complication, an embarrassment as much to therapeutics as to jurisprudence and to military service. But they exist and are a particular concern of medicine. Medical education, however, does nothing, literally nothing, towards their understanding and treatment. It would be tolerable if medical education merely failed to give doctors any orientation in the field of the neuroses. But it does more: it given them a false and detrimental attitude. -analytic instruction would include branches of knowledge which are remote from medicine and which the doctor does not come across in his practice: the history of civilization, mythology, the psychology of religion and the science of literature. Unless he is well at home in these subjects, an analyst can make nothing of a large amount of his material. By way of compensation, the great mass of what is taught in medical schools is of no use to him for his purposes. A knowledge of the anatomy of the tarsal bones, of the constitution of the carbohydrates, of the course of the cranial nerves, a grasp of all that medicine has brought to light on bacillary exciting causes of disease and the means of combating them, on serum reactions and on neoplasms-all of this knowledge, which is undoubtedly of the highest value in itself, is nevertheless of no consequence to him; it does not concern him; it neither helps him directly to understand a neurosis and to cure it nor does it contribute to a sharpening of those intellectual capacities on which his occupation makes the greatest demands. It is unjust and inexpedient to try to compel a person who wants to set someone else free from the torment of a phobia or an obsession to take the roundabout road of the medical curriculum. Nor will such an endeavor have any success
[Money is] laughing-gas to me.
[Letter] You probably imagine that I have secrets quite other than those I have reserved for myself, or you believe that (my secret) is connected with a special sorrow, whereas I feel capable of handling everything and am pleased with the resultant greater independence that comes from having overcome my homosexuality.
[Anna is a] jealous, depressed, masochistic, anorectic, latent-homosexual teenager.
[Letter] Unfortunately, my own father was one of these perverts and is responsible for the hysteria of my brother (all of whose symptoms are identifications) and those of several younger sisters.
The sex life of adult females is a dark continent for psychology.

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