Notable Famous Filmmakers and their Oscar and Razzie films.

by adog1990 | created - 04 Jul 2016 | updated - 3 months ago | Public

Rows 1-139: Famous Directors Rows 140-179: Writers/Filmmakers Rows 180-221: Producers Rows 222-233: Film Crew Members that Became Directors Rows 234-252: Acting Filmmakers

1. Stanley Kubrick

Director | 2001: A Space Odyssey

Stanley Kubrick was born in Manhattan, New York City, to Sadie Gertrude (Perveler) and Jacob Leonard Kubrick, a physician. His family were Jewish immigrants (from Austria, Romania, and Russia). Stanley was considered intelligent, despite poor grades at school. Hoping that a change of scenery would ...

Oscar Movie(s): Spartacus Lolita Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb 2001: A Space Odyssey A Clockwork Orange Barry Lyndon Full Metal Jacket

Razzie Movie(s): The Shining

2. Steven Spielberg

Producer | Schindler's List

One of the most influential personalities in the history of cinema, Steven Spielberg is Hollywood's best known director and one of the wealthiest filmmakers in the world. He has an extraordinary number of commercially successful and critically acclaimed credits to his name, either as a director, ...

Oscar Movie(s): Jaws Close Encounters of the Third Kind 1941 Raiders of the Lost Ark Poltergeist E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom The Color Purple Empire of the Sun Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Hook Jurassic Park Schindler's List The Lost World: Jurassic Park Amistad Saving Private Ryan A.I. Artificial Intelligence Minority Report Catch Me If You Can War of the Worlds Munich Memoirs of a Geisha Flags of Our Fathers Letters from Iwo Jima The Adventures of Tintin War Horse Lincoln Bridge of Spies The Post Ready Player One

Razzie Movie(s): Indian Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull

3. Bernardo Bertolucci

Writer | The Last Emperor

Bernardo Bertolucci, the Italian director whose films were known for their colorful visual style, was born in Parma, Italy. He attended Rome University and became famous as a poet. He served as assistant director for Pier Paolo Pasolini in the film Accattone (1961) and directed La Commare Secca (...

Oscar Movie(s): The Conformist Last Tango in Paris The Last Emperor

Razzie Movie(s): Little Buddha

4. Woody Allen

Writer | Manhattan

Woody Allen was born Allan Stewart Konigsberg on December 1, 1935 in Brooklyn, New York, to Nettie (Cherrie), a bookkeeper, and Martin Konigsberg, a waiter and jewellery engraver. His father was of Russian Jewish descent, and his maternal grandparents were Austrian Jewish immigrants. As a young boy...

Oscar Movie(s): What's New Pussycat Annie Hall Interiors Manhattan Zelig Broadway Danny Rose The Purple Rose of Cairo Hannah and Her Sisters Radio Days Crimes and Misdemeanors Alice Husbands and Wives Bullets Over Broadway Mighty Aphrodite Deconstructing Harry Sweet and Lowdown Match Point Vicky Cristina Barcelona Midnight in Paris Blue Jasmine

Razzie Movie(s): A Midsummer Night's Sex Comedy

5. Quentin Tarantino

Writer | Reservoir Dogs

Quentin Jerome Tarantino was born in Knoxville, Tennessee. His father, Tony Tarantino, is an Italian-American actor and musician from New York, and his mother, Connie (McHugh), is a nurse from Tennessee. Quentin moved with his mother to Torrance, California, when he was four years old.

In January of...

Oscar Movie(s): Pulp Fiction Jackie Brown Inglourious Basterds Django Unchained The Hateful Eight

Razzie Movie(s): Four Rooms From Dusk to Dawn

6. Clint Eastwood

Actor | Million Dollar Baby

Clint Eastwood was born May 31, 1930 in San Francisco, the son of Clinton Eastwood Sr., a manufacturing executive for Georgia-Pacific Corporation, and Ruth Wood, a housewife turned IBM operator. He had a comfortable, middle-class upbringing in nearby Piedmont. At school Clint took interest in music...

Oscar Movie(s): The Outlaw Josey Wales Heartbreak Ridge Bird Unforgiven The Bridges of Madison County Space Cowboys Mystic River Million Dollar Baby Flags of Our Fathers Letters from Iwo Jima Changeling Invictus Hearafter American Sniper Sully

Razzie Movie(s): Bronco Billy Honkytonk Man

7. Oliver Stone

Producer | JFK

Oliver Stone has become known as a master of controversial subjects and a legendary film maker. His films are filled with a variety of film angles and styles, he pushes his actors to give Oscar-worthy performances, and despite his failures, has always returned to success.

William Oliver Stone was ...

Oscar Movie(s): Midnight Express Salvador Platoon Wall Street Born on the Fourth of July Reversal of Fortune JFK Nixon Evita The People vs. Larry Flynt

Razzie Movie(s): Conan the Barbarian Scarface Year of the Dragon U Turn Alexander Snowden

8. Robert Zemeckis

Writer | Back to the Future

A whiz-kid with special effects, Robert is from the Spielberg camp of film-making (Steven Spielberg produced many of his films). Usually working with writing partner Bob Gale, Robert's earlier films show he has a talent for zany comedy (Romancing the Stone (1984), 1941 (1979)) and special effect ...

Oscar Movie(s): 1941 Romancing the Stone Back to the Future Who Framed Roger Rabbit Back to the Future Part II Death Becomes Her Forrest Gump Contact Cast Away The Polar Express Flight Allied

Razzie Movie(s): House of Wax

9. Ron Howard

Actor | Arrested Development

Academy Award-winning filmmaker Ron Howard is one of this generation's most popular directors. From the critically acclaimed dramas A Beautiful Mind (2001) and Apollo 13 (1995) to the hit comedies Parenthood (1989) and Splash (1984), he has created some of Hollywood's most memorable films.

Howard ...

Oscar Movie(s): Splash Cocoon Willow Parenthood Backdraft The Paper Apollo 13 How the Grinch Stole Christmas A Beautiful Mind Cinderella Man Changeling Frost/Nixon Solo: A Star Wars Story

Razzie Movie(s): Far and Away The Chamber The Da Vinci Code

10. Barry Levinson

Director | Rain Man

Barry Levinson was born in Baltimore, Maryland, to Violet (Krichinsky) and Irvin Levinson, who worked in furniture and appliance. He is of Russian Jewish descent. Levinson graduated from high school in 1960, attended college at American University in Washington, DC. He did well, but decided he ...

Oscar Movie(s): ...And Justice for All Inside Moves Diner Best Friends The Natural Young Sherlock Holmes Good Morning Vietnam Rain Man Avalon Bugsy Toys Sleepers Wag the Dog Donnie Brasco

Razzie Movie(s): Envy

11. Neil Jordan

Writer | The Crying Game

Neil Jordan was born on February 25, 1950 in Sligo, Ireland. He is a writer and producer, known for The Crying Game (1992), Breakfast on Pluto (2005) and Michael Collins (1996). He has been married to Brenda Rawn since June 30, 2004. They have two children. He was previously married to Vivienne ...

Oscar Movie(s): Mona Lisa The Crying Game Interview with the Vampire: The Vampire Chronicles Michael Collins The End of the Affair

Razzie Movie(s): High Spirits

12. Bill Condon

Director | Kinsey

Bill Condon was born on October 22, 1955 in New York City, New York, USA as William Patrick Condon. He is a director and writer, known for Kinsey (2004), Dreamgirls (2006) and Gods and Monsters (1998).

Oscar Movie(s): Gods and Monsters Chicago Kinsey Dreamgirls Beauty and the Beast (2017 film) The Greatest Showman

Razzie Movie(s): Strange Invaders The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn - Part 1 The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn - Part 2

13. Michael Moore

Director | Bowling for Columbine

Michael Francis Moore was born in Flint, Michigan on April 23, 1954, and was raised in its Davison suburb. He is the son of Helen Veronica (Wall), a secretary, and Francis Richard Moore, who worked on an auto assembly line. He has Irish, as well as English and Scottish, ancestry.

Moore studied ...

Oscar Movie(s): Bowling for Columbine Sicko

Razzie Movie(s): Fahrenheit 9/11 Fahrenheit 11/9

14. Danny Boyle

Director | 127 Hours

Danny Boyle was born on October 20, 1956 in Manchester, England as Daniel Boyle. He is a director and producer, known for 127 Hours (2010), 28 Days Later... (2002) and Slumdog Millionaire (2008).

Oscar Movie(s): Trainspotting Slumdog Millionaire 127 Hours Steve Jobs

Razzie Movie(s): The Beach

15. John Schlesinger

Director | Midnight Cowboy

Oscar-winning director John Schlesinger, who was born in London, on February 16, 1926, was the eldest child in a solidly middle-class Jewish family. Berbard Schlesinger, his father, was a pediatrician, and his mother, Winifred, was a musician. He served in the Army in the Far East during World War ...

Oscar Movie(s): Darling Far from the Madding Crowd Midnight Cowboy Sunday Bloody Sunday The Day of the Locust Marathon Man

Razzie Movie(s): Honky Tonk Freeway The Next Best Thing

16. Alexander Payne

Director | Nebraska

Director, producer and screenwriter Alexander Payne was born in Omaha, Nebraska. His parents, Peggy (Constantine) and George Payne, ran a Greek restaurant. His father is of Greek and German ancestry, and his mother is of Greek descent; the family name was originally Papadopoulos. He has two older ...

Oscar Movie(s): Election About Schmidt Sideways The Descendants Nebraska

Razzie Movie(s): Jurassic Park III I Now Pronounce You Chuck & Larry

17. Edward Zwick

Producer | Thirtysomething

Edward Zwick is well-known for his heroic movies that include Glory (1989), and the breathtaking works of art that include Legends of the Fall (1994). Zwick has also been known for his thoughtfulness as a director, and for his record of working with television series and other films as a producer.

...

Oscar Movie(s): Glory Legends of the Fall Shakespeare in Love Traffic I Am Sam The Last Samurai Blood Diamond Defiance

Razzie Movie(s): The Siege

18. John G. Avildsen

Director | Rocky

John G. Avildsen was born on December 21, 1935 in Oak Park, Illinois, USA as John Guilbert Avildsen. He was a director and editor, known for Rocky (1976), Rocky V (1990) and The Karate Kid Part III (1989). He was married to Tracy Brooks Swope and Marie Olga Maturevich. He died on June 16, 2017 in ...

Oscar Movie(s): Joe Save the Tiger Rocky The Formula Traveling Hopefully The Karate Kid The Karate Kid, Part II Happy New Year

Razzie Movie(s): A Night in Heaven The Karate Kid Part III Rocky V

19. Richard Fleischer

Director | Soylent Green

Richard Fleischer was born on December 8, 1916 in Brooklyn, New York City, New York, USA. He was a director and producer, known for Soylent Green (1973), 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954) and The Vikings (1958). He was married to Mary Dickson. He died on March 25, 2006 in Woodland Hills, Los ...

Oscar Movie(s): Design for Death The Narrow Margin 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea Between Heaven and Hell Fantastic Voyage Doctor Dolittle Tora! Tora! Tora! The Incredible Sarah

Razzie Movie(s): The Jazz Singer (1980 film) Conan the Destroyer Red Sonja Million Dollar Mystery

20. Richard Brooks

Writer | Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

Richard Brooks was an Academy Award-winning film writer who also earned six Oscar nominations and achieved success as a film director and producer.

He was born Ruben Sax on May 18, 1912, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants. He graduated from West Philadelphia HS...

Oscar Movie(s): With the Marines at Tarawa Key Largo Mystery Street Take the High Ground Blackboard Jungle The Brothers Karamazov Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Elmer Gantry Sweet Bird of Youth The Professionals In Cold Blood The Happy Ending Bite the Bullet Looking for Mr. Goodbar

Razzie Movie(s): Fever Pitch

21. Michael Cimino

Writer | The Deer Hunter

Michael Cimino studied architecture and dramatic arts; later he filmed advertisements and documentaries and also wrote scripts until the actor, producer and director Clint Eastwood gave him the opportunity to direct the thriller Thunderbolt and Lightfoot (1974). But his biggest success was The Deer...

Oscar Movie(s): Thunderbolt and Lightfoot The Deer Hunter The Rose Heaven's Gate

Razzie Movie(s): Year of the Dragon Desperate Hours

22. David Frankel

Director | The Devil Wears Prada

David Frankel was born on April 2, 1959 in New York City, New York, USA. He is a producer and director, known for The Devil Wears Prada (2006), Band of Brothers (2001) and One Chance (2013).

Oscar Movie(s): Dear Diary The Devil Wears Prada

Razzie Movie(s): Collateral Beauty

23. William Friedkin

Director | The French Connection

Friedkin's mother was an operating room nurse. His father was a merchant seaman, semi-pro softball player and ultimately sold clothes in a men's discount chain. Ultimately, his father never earned more than $50/week in his whole life and died indigent. Eventually young Will became infatuated with ...

Oscar Movie(s): The French Connection The Exorcist Sorcerer The Brink's Job

Razzie Movie(s): Cruising Blue Chips Jade

24. Spike Jonze

Producer | Her

Spike Jonze made up one-third (along with Andy Jenkins and Mark Lewman) of the triumvirate of genius minds behind Dirt Magazine, the brother publication of the much lamented ground-breaking Sassy Magazine. These three uncommon characters were all editors for Grand Royal Magazine as well, under the ...

Oscar Movie(s): Being John Malkovich Adaptation. Jackass Presents: Bad Grandpa Her

Razzie Movie(s): Jackass: The Movie

25. Warren Beatty

Actor | Reds

Since starring in his first film, Splendor in the Grass (1961), Warren Beatty has been said to have demonstrated a greater longevity in movies than any actor of his generation. Few people have taken so many responsibilities for all phases of the production of films as producer, director, writer, ...

Oscar Movie(s): Bonnie and Clyde Shampoo Heaven Can Wait Reds Dick Tracy Bugsy Bulworth

Razzie Movie(s): Ishtar Love Affair (1994 film)

26. Kevin Costner

Actor | The Postman

Kevin Michael Costner was born on January 18, 1955 in Lynwood, California, the third child of Bill Costner, a ditch digger and ultimately an electric line servicer for Southern California Edison, and Sharon Costner (née Tedrick), a welfare worker. His older brother, Dan, was born in 1950. A middle ...

Oscar Movie(s): Dances with Wolves Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves The Bodyguard Wyatt Earp Waterworld

Razzie Movie(s): The Postman Message in a Bottle

27. Sidney Lumet

Director | 12 Angry Men

Sidney Lumet was a master of cinema, best known for his technical knowledge and his skill at getting first-rate performances from his actors -- and for shooting most of his films in his beloved New York. He made over 40 movies, often complex and emotional, but seldom overly sentimental. Although ...

Oscar Movie(s): 12 Angry Men Long Day's Journey Into Night The Pawnbroker King: A Filmed Record... Montgomery to Memphis Serpico Murder on the Orient Express Dog Day Afternoon Network Equus The Wiz Prince of the City The Verdict The Morning After Running on Empty

Razzie Movie(s): Deathtrap Power A Stranger Among Us Gloria (1999 film)

28. George Lucas

Writer | Star Wars

George Walton Lucas, Jr. was raised on a walnut ranch in Modesto, California. His father was a stationery store owner and he had three siblings. During his late teen years, he went to Thomas Downey High School and was very much interested in drag racing. He planned to become a professional racecar ...

Oscar Movie(s): American Graffiti Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back Raiders of the Lost Ark Star Wars: Episode VI - Return or the Jedi Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom Willow Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace Star Wars: Episode II - Attack of the Clones Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith

Razzie Movie(s): Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull

29. Ridley Scott

Producer | The Martian

Described by film producer Michael Deeley as "the very best eye in the business", director Ridley Scott was born on November 30, 1937 in South Shields, Tyne and Wear (then County Durham). His father was an officer in the Royal Engineers and the family followed him as his career posted him ...

Oscar Movie(s): Alien Blade Runner Legend Black Rain Thelma & Louise Gladiator Black Hawk Down The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford American Gangster Prometheus The Martian All the Money in the World

Razzie Movie(s): G.I. Jane

30. Hugh Hudson

Director | Chariots of Fire

Hugh Hudson was born on August 25, 1936 in London, England. He is a director and producer, known for Chariots of Fire (1981), Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes (1984) and The Tortoise and the Hare (1966). He has been married to Maryam d'Abo since November 2003. He was previously ...

Oscar Movie(s): Chariots of Fire Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes

Razzie Movie(s): Revolution I Dreamed of Africa

31. Adrian Lyne

Director | Flashdance

Adrian Lyne (Director/Writer/Producer) is the creative force behind some of the most talked-about movies of our time, among them, "Fatal Attraction", "9 1/2 Weeks", "Flashdance", "Indecent Proposal", "Jacob's Ladder" and "Unfaithful".

Born in Peterborough, England and raised in London, Lyne attended...

Oscar Movie(s): Flashdance Fatal Attraction Unfaithful

Razzie Movie(s): 9½ Weeks Indecent Proposal

32. Rob Reiner

Actor | All in the Family

Robert Reiner was born in New York City, to Estelle Reiner (née Lebost) and Emmy-winning actor, comedian, writer, and producer Carl Reiner.

As a child, he often looked up to his father as his inspiration and role-model. Carl Reiner was on The Dick Van Dyke Show, which he created and also starred in....

Oscar Movie(s): Stand by Me The Princess Bride When Harry Met Sally... Misery A Few Good Men The American President Ghosts of Mississippi

Razzie Movie(s): North

33. Ivan Reitman

Producer | Up in the Air

Ivan Reitman, as a producer and director, has created many of American cinema's most successful and best loved feature film comedies and has worked with Hollywood's acting elite. Reitman has produced such hits as the ground-breaking sensation National Lampoon's National Lampoon's Animal House (1978)...

Oscar Movie(s): Ghostbusters Dave Junior Up in the Air Hitchcock

Razzie Movie(s): Stop! Or My Mom Will Shoot Father's Day Private Parts Baywatch

34. Chris Columbus

Producer | Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone

Born in Pennsylvania and raised in Ohio, Chris Columbus was first inspired to make movies after seeing "The Godfather" at age 15. After enrolling at NYU film school, he sold his first screenplay (never produced) while a sophomore there. After graduation Columbus tried to sell his fourth script, "...

Oscars Movie(s): Young Sherlock Holmes Home Alone Mrs. Doubtfire Bicentennial Man Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban The Help

Razzie Movie(s): Jingle All the Way Pixels

35. M. Night Shyamalan

Producer | Lady in the Water

Born in Puducherry, India, and raised in the posh suburban Penn Valley area of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, M. Night Shyamalan is a film director, screenwriter, producer, and occasional actor, known for making movies with contemporary supernatural plots.

He is the son of Jayalakshmi, a Tamil ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Sixth Sense Stuart Little The Village

Razzie Movie(s): Lady in the Water The Happening The Last Airbender After Earth

36. Chris Weitz

Writer | About a Boy

Chris Weitz was born on November 30, 1969 in New York City, New York, USA as Christopher John Weitz. He is a producer and writer, known for About a Boy (2002), The Golden Compass (2007) and Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2016). He has been married to Mercedes Martinez since 2006. They have one child.

Oscar Movie(s): About a Boy The Golden Compass A Single Man A Better Life Cinderella (2015 film) Rogue One: A Star Wars Story

Razzie Movie(s): The Twilight Saga: New Moon

37. Paul Weitz

Writer | About a Boy

Paul Weitz was born on November 19, 1965 in New York City, New York, USA as Paul J. Weitz. He is a director, writer and producer, known for Grandma (2015), About a Boy (2002), and Mozart in the Jungle (2014), for which he won a Golden Globe. He has been married to Patricia Brown since December 15, ...

Oscar Movie(s): About a Boy

Razzie Movie(s): Little Fockers

38. Stephen Frears

Director | Dangerous Liaisons

Stephen Frears was born on June 20, 1941 in Leicester, Leicestershire, England as Stephen Arthur Frears. He is a director and producer, known for Dangerous Liaisons (1988), Philomena (2013) and The Queen (2006). He has been married to Anne Rothenstein since 1992. They have two children. He was ...

Oscar Movie(s): My Beautiful Laundrette Dangerous Liaisons The Grifters Dirty Pretty Things Mrs. Henderson Presents The Queen Philomena Florence Foster Jenkins Victoria & Abdul

Razzie Movie(s): Mary Reilly

39. John Singleton

Writer | Boyz n the Hood

Son of Danny Singleton, a mortgage broker, and Sheila Ward, a pharmaceutical company sales executive, and raised in separate households by his unmarried parents, John Singleton attended the Film Writing Program at USC, after graduating from high school in 1986. While studying there, he won three ...

Oscar Movie(s): Boyz n the Hood Poetic Justice Hustle & Flow

Razzie Movie(s): 2 Fast 2 Furious Abuction

40. Michael Mann

Producer | The Insider

A student of London's International Film School, Michael Mann began his career in the late 70s, writing for TV shows like Starsky and Hutch (1975). He directed his first film, the award-winning prison drama The Jericho Mile (1979), in 1979. He followed that in 1981 with his first theatrical release,...

Oscar Movie(s): The Last of the Mohicans The Insider Ali Collateral The Aviator

Razzie Movie(s): Thief

41. Mikael Håfström

Writer | Ondskan

Mikael Håfström was born on July 1, 1960 in Lund, Skåne län, Sweden as Jan Mikael Håfström. He is a writer and director, known for Evil (2003), 1408 (2007) and The Rite (2011).

Oscar Movie(s): Evil

Razzie Movie(s): Escape Plan

42. Blake Edwards

Writer | The Pink Panther Strikes Again

Blake Edwards' stepfather's father J. Gordon Edwards was a silent screen director, and his stepfather Jack McEdward was a stage director and movie production manager. Blake acted in a number films, beginning with Ten Gentlemen from West Point (1942) and wrote a number of others, beginning with ...

Oscar Movie(s): Operation Petticoat High Time Breakfast at Tiffany's Days of Wine and Roses The Pink Panther (1963 film) The Great Race Darling Lili The Pink Panther Strikes Again 10 Victor Victoria That's Life! Sunset

Razzie Movie(s): S.O.B. City Heat Son of the Pink Panther

43. Adam McKay

Producer | The Other Guys

Adam McKay (born April 17, 1968) is an American screenwriter, director, comedian, and actor. McKay has a comedy partnership with Will Ferrell, with whom he co-wrote the films Anchorman, Talladega Nights, and The Other Guys. Ferrell and McKay also founded their comedy website Funny or Die through ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Big Short Vice

Razzie Movie(s): Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy Tammy Daddy's Home 2 Holmes & Watson

44. Uli Edel

Director | Der Baader Meinhof Komplex

Uli Edel was born on April 11, 1947 in Neuenburg am Rhein, Germany. He is a director and writer, known for The Baader Meinhof Complex (2008), Christiane F. (1981) and Das Adlon. Eine Familiensaga (2013).

Oscar Movie(s): The Baader Meinhof Complex

Razzie Movie(s): Body of Evidence

45. Nancy Meyers

Writer | It's Complicated

Nancy Meyers was born on December 8, 1949 in Pennsylvania, USA as Nancy Jane Meyers. She is a writer and producer, known for It's Complicated (2009), Something's Gotta Give (2003) and The Holiday (2006). She was previously married to Charles Shyer.

Oscar Movie(s): Private Benjamin Something's Gotta Give

Razzie Movie(s): Once Upon a Crime...

46. Frank Perry

Director | Mommie Dearest

Frank Perry was born on August 21, 1930 in New York City, New York, USA as Jr. Frank Joseph Perry. He was a director and producer, known for Mommie Dearest (1981), Last Summer (1969) and David and Lisa (1962). He was married to Virginia Brush Ford, Barbara Goldsmith and Eleanor Perry. He died on ...

Oscar Movie(s): David and Lisa Last Summer Diary of a Mad Housewife

Razzie Movie(s): Mommie Dearest Monsignor

47. Norman Jewison

Director | In the Heat of the Night

Norman Frederick Jewison was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, to Dorothy Irene (Weaver) and Percy Joseph Jewison, who managed a post office and a convenience store. His mother was an English immigrant, and his father was of English and Ulster-Scots descent. Jewison got his BA at Victoria College, ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Russians Are Coming the Russians Are Coming In the Heat of the Night The Thomas Crown Affair Gaily, Gaily The Landlord Fiddler on the Roof Jesus Christ Superstar ...And Justice for All Best Friends A Soldier's Story Agnes of God Moonstruck The Hurricane

Razzie Movie(s): Bogus

48. Alan J. Pakula

Producer | Sophie's Choice

Alan J. Pakula was born on April 7, 1928 in The Bronx, New York City, New York, USA as Alan Jay Pakula. He was a producer and director, known for Sophie's Choice (1982), All the President's Men (1976) and Presumed Innocent (1990). He was married to Hannah Pakula and Hope Lange. He died on November ...

Oscar Movie(s): To Kill a Mockingbird The Sterile Cuckoo Klute All the President's Men Comes a Horseman Starting Over Sophie's Choice

Razzie Movie(s): Rollover

49. J. Lee Thompson

Director | The Guns of Navarone

J. Lee Thompson was born on August 1, 1914 in Bristol, England as John Lee Thompson. He was a director and writer, known for The Guns of Navarone (1961), Woman in a Dressing Gown (1957) and Conquest of the Planet of the Apes (1972). He was married to Lucille Kelly, Penny Thompson, Florence (Bill) ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Guns of Navarone Taras Bulba What a Way to Go!

Razzie Movie(s): King Solomon's Mines (1985 film)

50. John Madden

Director | Shakespeare in Love

John Madden was born on April 8, 1949 in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England. He is a director and producer, known for Shakespeare in Love (1998), The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel (2011) and Miss Sloane (2016).

Oscar Movie(s): Mrs. Brown Shakespeare in Love

Razzie Movie(s): Captain Corelli's Mandolin

51. Roland Joffé

Director | The Mission

Roland Joffé was born on November 17, 1945 in London, England. He is a producer and director, known for The Mission (1986), The Killing Fields (1984) and The Scarlet Letter (1995). He was previously married to Jane Lapotaire.

Oscar Movie(s): The Killing Fields The Mission Vatel

Razzie Movie(s): The Scarlet Letter Captivity

52. Arthur Hiller

Director | Love Story

Arthur Hiller was born on November 22, 1923 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. He was a director and producer, known for Love Story (1970), The Hospital (1971) and See No Evil, Hear No Evil (1989). He was married to Gwen Hiller. He died on August 17, 2016 in Los Angeles, California, USA.

Oscar Movie(s): The Americanization of Emily Tobruk Love Story The Hospital Man of La Mancha The Man in the Glass Booth Silver Streak

Razzie Movie(s): Author! Author! Carpool An Alan Smithee Film: Burn Hollywood Burn

53. Todd Phillips

Producer | Due Date

Todd Phillips was born on December 20, 1970 in Brooklyn, New York City, New York, USA as Todd Bunzl. He is a producer and director, known for Due Date (2010), Old School (2003) and The Hangover (2009).

Oscar Movie(s): Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan A Star is Born (2018 film)

Razzie Movie(s): Starsky and Hutch The Hangover Part II The Hangover Part III

54. Paul Verhoeven

Director | RoboCop

Paul Verhoeven graduated from the University of Leiden, with a degree in math and physics. He entered the Royal Netherlands Navy, where he began his film career by making documentaries for the Navy and later for TV. In 1969, he directed the popular Dutch TV series, Floris (1969), about a medieval ...

Oscar Movie(s): Turkish Delight RoboCop Total Recall Basic Instinct Starship Troopers Hollow Man Elle

Razzie Movie(s): Showgirls

55. Mark Rydell

Director | On Golden Pond

Mark Rydell was born on March 23, 1929 in New York City, New York, USA as Mortimer H. Rydell. He is known for his work on On Golden Pond (1981), The Long Goodbye (1973) and James Dean (2001). He was previously married to Esther Jacobs and Joanne Linville.

Oscar Movie(s): The Fox The Reivers Cinderella Liberty The Rose On Golden Pond The River For the Boys

Razzie Movie(s): Intersection

56. Gus Van Sant

Director | Elephant

Gus Van Sant was born on July 24, 1952 in Louisville, Kentucky, USA as Gus Greene Van Sant Junior. He is a director and producer, known for Elephant (2003), My Own Private Idaho (1991) and Drugstore Cowboy (1989).

Oscar Movie(s): Good Will Hunting Milk

Razzie Movie(s): Even Cowgirls Get the Blues Psycho (1998 film)

57. Martin Brest

Director | Scent of a Woman

Martin Brest was born on August 8, 1951 in The Bronx, New York City, New York, USA. He is a director and producer, known for Scent of a Woman (1992), Midnight Run (1988) and Beverly Hills Cop (1984).

Oscar Movie(s): Beverly Hills Cop Scent of a Woman

Razzie Movie(s): Meet Joe Black Gigli

58. Stanley Donen

Director | Charade

Inspired by Fred Astaire's dancing in Flying Down to Rio (1933), Stanley Donen (pronounced 'Dawn-en') attended dance classes from the age of ten. He later recalled that the only thing he wanted to be was a tap dancer.

He was born in Columbia, South Carolina, to Helen Pauline (Cohen) and Mordecai ...

Oscar Movie(s): On the Town Royal Wedding Singin' in the Rain Seven Brides for Seven Brothers It's Always Fair Weather Funny Face Damn Yankees! Charade Two for the Road The Little Prince

Razzie Movie(s): Saturn 3 Blame It on Rio

59. Hal Needham

Director | Smokey and the Bandit

As the highest paid stuntman in the world, Hal Needham broke 56 bones, his back twice, punctured a lung and knocked out a few teeth. His career has included work on 4500 television episodes and 310 feature films as a stuntman, stunt coordinator, 2nd unit director and ultimately, director.

He wrote ...

Oscar Movie(s): Smokey and the Bandit Hooper

Razzie Movie(s): The Cannonball Run Megaforce Stroker Ace Cannonball Run II

60. James Bridges

Writer | The China Syndrome

James Bridges was born on February 3, 1936 in Paris, Arkansas, USA. He was a writer and actor, known for The China Syndrome (1979), Perfect (1985) and The Paper Chase (1973). He died on June 6, 1993 in Los Angeles, California, USA.

Oscar Movie(s): The Baby Maker The Paper Chase The China Syndrome

Razzie Movie(s): Perfect

61. Robert Clouse

Director | Enter the Dragon

A hard-working director throughout his long and varied career, Robert Clouse is known best for his two most successful films: Enter the Dragon (1973) and _Game of Death (1978_. Clouse was a director who worked mainly in the visuals of cinema, owing to the fact that he was completely deaf, he ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Cadillac The Legend of Jimmy Blue Eyes

Razzie Movie(s): Gymkata

62. Bob Rafelson

Producer | Five Easy Pieces

Bob Rafelson is an American film director, writer and producer. He is regarded as one of the founders of the New Hollywood movement in the 1970s. Among his best-known films are Five Easy Pieces (1970), The King of Marvin Gardens (1972), and The Postman Always Rings Twice (1981).

He was also one of ...

Oscar Movie(s): Easy Rider Five Easy Pieces The Last Picture Show

Razzie Movie(s): Man Trouble

63. Bruce Beresford

Director | 'Breaker' Morant

Bruce Beresford was born in Australia and graduated from Sydney University in 1962. He served as Film Officer for the British Film Institute Production Board from 1966-1971 and as a Film Advisor to the Arts Council of Great Britain. Beresford has also directed several operas including Girl Of The ...

Oscar Movie(s): Breaker Morant Tender Mercies Crimes of the Heart Driving Miss Daisy

Razzie Movie(s): King David Her Alibi Last Dance

64. Michael Tollin

Producer | Radio

Michael Tollin was born on October 6, 1955 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He is a producer and writer, known for Radio (2003), Coach Carter (2005) and Hank Aaron: Chasing the Dream (1995).

Oscar Movie(s): Hank Aaron: Chasing the Dream

Razzie Movie(s): Hardball Radio

65. Bill Couturié

Producer | Earth and the American Dream

Bill Couturié is a producer and director, known for Earth and the American Dream (1992), Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam (1987) and Vietnam Requiem (1982).

Oscar Movie(s): Common Threads: Stories from the Quilt Memorial: Letters from American Soldiers

Razzie Movie(s): Ed

66. Matthew Diamond

Director | The Wiz Live!

Matthew Diamond is a director and producer, known for The Wiz Live! (2015), Jane the Virgin (2014) and Dancemaker (1998).

Oscar Movie(s): Dancemaker

Razzie Movie(s): The Oogieloves in the Big Balloon Adventure

67. Ken Annakin

Director | The Longest Day

A former salesman and journalist, Ken Annakin got into the film industry making documentary shorts. His feature debut, Holiday Camp (1947), was a comedy about a Cockney family on vacation. It was made for the Rank Organization and was a modest success, spawning three sequels, all of which he ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Longest Day Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines or How I Flew from London to Paris in 25 hours 11 minutes

Razzie Movie(s): The Pirate Movie The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking

68. Terence Young

Director | Dr. No

Born in Shanghai and Cambridge-educated, Terence Young began in the industry as a scriptwriter. In the 1940s he worked on a variety of subjects, including the hugely popular wartime romance Suicide Squadron (1941), set to Richard Addinsell's rousing "Warsaw Concerto". His original story was devised...

Oscar Movie(s): Thunderball Wait Until Dark

Razzie Movie(s): Inchon

69. Michael Ritchie

Director | The Golden Child

Michael Ritchie was born on November 28, 1938 in Waukesha, Wisconsin, USA as Michael Brunswick Ritchie. He was a director and producer, known for The Golden Child (1986), The Island (1980) and Fletch (1985). He was married to Jimmie Brown and Georgina Tebrock. He died on April 16, 2001 in New York ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Candidate

Razzie Movie(s): The Island

70. Ted Demme

Director | Blow

Ted Demme was born on October 26, 1963 in New York City, New York, USA as Edward Demme. He was a director and producer, known for Blow (2001), Beautiful Girls (1996) and A Decade Under the Influence (2003). He was married to Amanda Scheer-Demme. He died on January 13, 2002 in Santa Monica, ...

Oscar Movie(s): Life

Razzie Movie(s): Blow

71. John Frankenheimer

Director | The Manchurian Candidate

Born in New York and raised in Queens, John Frankenheimer wanted to become a professional tennis player. He loved movies and his favorite actor was Robert Mitchum. He decided he wanted to be an actor but then he applied for and was accepted in the Motion Picture Squadron of the Air Force where he ...

Oscar Movie(s): Birdman of Alcatraz The Manchurian Candidate Seven Days in May The Train Seconds Grand Prix The Fixer

Razzie Movie(s): The Island of Dr. Moreau

72. Bob Clark

Director | A Christmas Story

Bob Clark was born on August 5, 1939 in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA as Benjamin Clark. He was a director and writer, known for A Christmas Story (1983), Porky's (1981) and Baby Geniuses (1999). He died on April 4, 2007 in Pacific Palisades, California, USA.

Oscar Movie(s): Tribute

Razzie Movie(s): Rhinestone Turk 182! From the Hip Superbabies: Baby Geniuses 2

73. John Landis

Director | The Blues Brothers

John Landis began his career in the mail room of 20th Century-Fox. A high-school dropout, 18-year-old Landis made his way to Yugoslavia to work as a production assistant on Kelly's Heroes (1970). Remaining in Europe, Landis found work as an actor, extra and stuntman in many of the Spanish/Italian "...

Oscar Movie(s): An American Werewolf in London Trading Places Coming to America

Razzie Movie(s): Oscar Beverly Hills Cop III The Stupids

74. John Carpenter

Soundtrack | Escape from New York

John Howard Carpenter was born in Carthage, New York, to mother Milton Jean (Carter) and father Howard Ralph Carpenter. His family moved to Bowling Green, Kentucky, where his father, a professor, was head of the music department at Western Kentucky University. He attended Western Kentucky ...

Oscar Movie(s): Starman

Razzie Movie(s): The Thing Village of the Damned

75. Joel Schumacher

Director | The Phantom of the Opera

Joel Schumacher was born on August 29, 1939 in New York City, New York, USA as Joel T. Schumacher. He is a director and writer, known for The Phantom of the Opera (2004), Batman & Robin (1997) and Phone Booth (2002).

Oscar Movie(s): Interiors The Wiz Flantliners The Client Batman Forever The Phantom of the Opera

Razzie Movie(s): St. Elmo's Fire A Time to Kill Batman & Robin The Number 23 Trespass

76. Michael Bay

Producer | Armageddon

A graduate of Wesleyan University, Michael Bay spent his 20s working on advertisements and music videos. His first projects after film school were in the music video business. He created music videos for Tina Turner, Meat Loaf, Lionel Richie, Wilson Phillips, Donny Osmond and Divinyls. His work won...

Oscar Movie(s): The Rock Armageddon Pearl Harbor Transformers Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen Transformers: Dark of the Moon 13 Hours: The Secret Soldiers of Banghazi A Quiet Place

Razzie Movie(s): The Texas Chainsaw Massacre The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning Transformers: Age of Extinction Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows Transformers: The Last Knight

77. Joe Wright

Director | Pride & Prejudice

Joe Wright is an English film director. He is best known for Pride & Prejudice (2005), Atonement (2007), Anna Karenina (2012), and Darkest Hour (2017).

Wright always had an interest in the arts, especially painting. He would also make films on his Super 8 camera as well as spend time in the evenings...

Oscar Movie(s): Pride & Prejudice Atonement Anna Karenina Darkest Hour

Razzie Movie(s): Pan

78. Sam Raimi

Director | Spider-Man

Highly inventive U.S. film director/producer/writer/actor Sam Raimi first came to the attention of film fans with the savage, yet darkly humorous, low-budget horror film, The Evil Dead (1981). From his childhood, Raimi was a fan of the cinema and, before he was ten-years-old, he was out making ...

Oscar Movie(s): A Simple Plan Spider-Man Spider-Man 2

Razzie Movie(s): For Love of the Game

79. Richard Donner

Director | Superman

Richard Donner was born on April 24, 1930 in New York City, New York, USA as Richard D. Schwartzberg. He is a director and producer, known for Superman (1978), Ladyhawke (1985) and Lethal Weapon (1987). He has been married to Lauren Shuler Donner since November 27, 1986.

Oscar Movie(s): The Omen (1976 film) Superman Inside Moves Ladyhawke Lethal Weapon Scrooged Lethal Weapon 2 Maverick

Razzie Movie(s): Assassins Lethal Weapon 4

80. Richard Lester

Director | A Hard Day's Night

Richard Lester was one of the most influential directors of the 1960s, and continued his career into the 1970s and early '80s. He is best remembered for the two films he helmed starring The Beatles: A Hard Day's Night (1964) (1964) and Help! (1965) (1965), the frenetic cutting style of which was ...

Oscar Movie(s): The Running Jumping & Standing Still Film A Hard Day's Night A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum The Four Musketeers: Milady's Revenge Superman Butch and Sundance: The Early Days

Razzie Movie(s): Superman III

81. Garry Marshall

Director | Pretty Woman

Garry Marshall was born on November 13, 1934 in The Bronx, New York City, New York, USA as Garry Kent Maschiarelli. He was a writer and producer, known for Pretty Woman (1990), The Princess Diaries (2001) and Happy Days (1974). He was married to Barbara Marshall. He died on July 19, 2016 in Los ...

Oscar Movie(s): Beaches Pretty Woman

Razzie Movie(s): Exit to Eden The Other Sister Valentine's Day New Year's Day Mother's Day

82. Penny Marshall

Actress | Laverne & Shirley

Penny Marshall was born Carole Penny Marshall on October 15, 1943 in the Bronx, New York. The Libra was 5' 6 1/2", with brown hair and green eyes. She was the daughter of Marjorie (Ward), a tap dance teacher, and Anthony "Tony" Marshall, an industrial film director. She was the younger sister of ...

Oscar Movie(s): Big Awakenings The Preacher's Wife Cinderella Man

Razzie Movie(s): Bewitched

83. Jerry Zucker

Producer | Airplane!

Jerry Zucker was born on March 11, 1950 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. He is a producer and writer, known for Airplane! (1980), Ghost (1990) and Top Secret! (1984). He has been married to Janet Zucker since May 1987. They have two children.

Oscar Movie(s): Ghost My Best Friend's Wedding

Razzie Movie(s): A Walk in the Clouds

84. John McTiernan

Director | Die Hard

John McTiernan was born on January 8, 1951 in Albany, New York, USA as John Campbell McTiernan Jr. He is a director and producer, known for Die Hard (1988), Predator (1987) and Last Action Hero (1993). He has been married to Gail Sistrunk since 2012. He was previously married to Kate Harrington, ...

Oscar Movie(s): Predator Die Hard The Hunt for Red October

Razzie Movie(s): Medicine Man Last Action Hero Rollerball

85. Renny Harlin

Director | Die Hard 2

Born in 15 March 1959 as Renny Lauri Mauritz Harjola, he is the most successful Finnish film director in the history of Hollywood.

Harlin started his career in film business in the beginning of 1980s when he was directing commercials and company films for companies like Shell. Later he worked as a ...

Oscar Movie(s): Rambling Rose Clifhanger

Razzie Movie(s): A Nightmare on Elm Street 4: The Dream Master The Adventures of Ford Fairlane Cutthroat Island Driven Exorcist: The Beginning The Legend of Hercules

86. Alex Proyas

Director | Dark City

Alex Proyas has moved effortlessly between helming TV commercials and music videos to feature films. Born to Greek parents in Egypt, Proyas relocated to Australia with his family when he was three years old. He began making films at age ten and went on to attend the Australian Film Television and ...

Oscar Movie(s): I, Robot

Razzie Movie(s): Gods of Egypt

87. Roland Emmerich

Writer | Independence Day

Roland Emmerich is a German film director and producer of blockbuster films like The Day After Tomorrow (2004), Godzilla (1998), Independence Day (1996) and The Patriot (2000). Before fame, he originally wanted to be a production designer, but decided to be a director, after watching the original ...

Oscar Movie(s): Independence Day The Patriot Anonymous

Razzie Movie(s): Godzilla Independence Day: Resurgence

88. Brian De Palma

Director | Dressed to Kill

Brian De Palma is the son of a surgeon. He studied physics but at the same time felt his dedication for the movies and made some short films. After seven independent productions he had his first success with Sisters (1972) and his voyeuristic style. Restlessly he worked on big projects with the ...

Oscar Movie(s): Phantom of the Paradise Obsession Carrie (1976 film) The Untouchables The Black Dahlia

Razzie Movie(s): Dressed to Kill Scarface Body Double The Bonfire of the Vanities Mission: Impossible Mission to Mars

89. J.J. Abrams

Producer | Lost

Jeffrey Jacob Abrams was born in New York City and raised in Los Angeles, the son of TV producer parents. Abrams planned on going to dental school, but decided to study film at Sarah Lawrence College. At 15, he wrote the music for Don Dohler's Nightbeast (1982). In his senior year, he and Jill ...

Oscar Movie(s): Armageddon Star Trek Star Trek Into Darkness Star Wars: Episode VII - The Force Awakens Star Trek Beyond

Razzie Movie(s): The Pallbearer

90. Matt Reeves

Writer | Let Me In

Born on April 27, 1966, Matthew Reeves is a writer, director and producer, known for his directorial work on Cloverfield (2008), Dawn of the Planet of the Apes (2014), and War for the Planet of the Apes (2017). Reeves was born in in Rockville Center, New York and was childhood friends with director ...

Oscar Movie(s): Dawn of the Planet of the Apes War for the Planet of the Apes

Razzie Movie(s): The Pallbearer

91. Fritz Lang

Actor | Le mépris

Fritz Lang was born in Vienna, Austria, in 1890. His father managed a construction company. His mother, Pauline Schlesinger, was Jewish but converted to Catholicism when Lang was ten. After high school, he enrolled briefly at the Technische Hochschule Wien and then started to train as a painter. ...

Oscar Movie(s): Fury Hangmen Also Die!

Razzie Movie(s): Metropolis

92. Stephen Hopkins

Producer | Lost in Space

Stephen Hopkins was born in 1958 in Jamaica. He is a producer and director, known for Lost in Space (1998), A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child (1989) and Predator 2 (1990).

Oscar Movie(s): The Ghost and the Darkness

Razzie Movie(s): A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child Lost in Space

93. Jay Roach

Director | Trumbo

Jay Roach was born on June 14, 1957 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA as Mathew Jay Roach. He is a producer and director, known for Trumbo (2015), Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery (1997) and Blown Away (1994). He has been married to Susanna Hoffs since April 17, 1993. They have two ...

Oscar Movie(s): Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me Meet the Parents Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan Trumbo

Razzie Movie(s): Little Fockers

94. Luis Mandoki

Director | Voces inocentes

Luis Mandoki was born in 1954 in Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico. He is a director and producer, known for Innocent Voices (2004), La vida precoz y breve de Sabina Rivas (2012) and Message in a Bottle (1999).

Oscar Movie(s): Gaby: A True Story

Razzie Movie(s): Born Yesterday Message in a Bottle Angel Eyes

95. John Guillermin

Director | The Towering Inferno

Began his career in France in 1947 as a documentary filmmaker.

Oscar Movie(s): The Tower Inferno King Kong (1976 film) Death on the Nile

Razzie Movie(s): Sheena: Queen of the Jungle King Kong Lives

96. Tobe Hooper

Director | The Texas Chain Saw Massacre

Honored with many awards for his films and achievement in the horror genre, Tobe Hooper is truly one of the Masters of Horror (2005).

Tobe Hooper was born in Austin, Texas, to Lois Belle (Crosby) and Norman William Ray Hooper, who owned a theater in San Angelo. He spent the 1960s as a college ...

Oscar Movie(s): Poltergeist

Razzie Movie(s): Invaders from Mars The Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Beginning

97. Wes Craven

Writer | A Nightmare on Elm Street

Wes Craven has become synonymous with genre bending and innovative horror, challenging audiences with his bold vision.

Wesley Earl Craven was born in Cleveland, Ohio, to Caroline (Miller) and Paul Eugene Craven. He had a midwestern suburban upbringing. His first feature film was The Last House on ...

Oscar Movie(s): Music of the Heart

Razzie Movie(s): Deadly Blessing Scream 2

98. John Woo

Director | Ying hung boon sik

Born in southern China, John Woo grew up in Hong Kong, where he began his film career as an assistant director in 1969, working for Shaw Brothers Studios. He directed his first feature in 1973 and has been a prolific director ever since, working in a wide variety of genres before A Better Tomorrow ...

Oscar Movie(s): Face/Off

Razzie Movie(s): Mission: Impossible II Paycheck

99. Allan Arkush

Producer | Heroes

Allan Arkush was born on April 30, 1948 in Jersey City, New Jersey, USA. He is a producer and director, known for Heroes (2006), Witches of East End (2013) and Crossing Jordan (2001).

Oscar Movie(s): Heartbeeps

Razzie Movie(s): Caddyshack II

100. Brad Silberling

Director | City of Angels

Brad Silberling was born on September 8, 1963 in Washington, District of Columbia, USA as Bradley Mitchell Silberling. He is a producer and director, known for City of Angels (1998), Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events (2004) and Moonlight Mile (2002). He has been married to Amy ...

Oscar Movie(s): Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events

Razzie Movie(s): Land of the Lost



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