The adversary Krall is ultimately identified as a deformed Balthazer M. Edison, captain of the U.S.S. Franklin, a ship that, according to Scotty, disappeared without a trace in 2164, shortly after the foundation of the Federation of Planets.
Krall/Edison is also identified as a former M.A.C.O. (Starfleet Marines), and mentions fighting during the Xindi War (2153-2154) as well as the Romulan-Earth Wars (2156-2160). Especially the mentioning of the Xindi War is interesting, because this places him directly on board the Enterprise NX-01, during the events of the third season of Enterprise. He later states that he became desillusioned when the Federation was founded, and there was no apparent need for soldiers anymore. He received command of the U.S.S. Franklin in recognition of his services for Starfleet, and later disappeared.
Some viewers have noted that this does not seem to fit in the official Star Trek timeline: if Edison received command of a ship after the Romulan Wars, how could it be a warp 4 ship? By the time the wars had ended, the Enterprise NX-01 and the Columbia NX-02 had already been flying with warp 5 engines for many years. So this is a potential error on the part of the writers of Star Trek Beyond.
However, there is a fitting explanation for this. According to the Star Trek timeline, warp 2.5 was achieved in 2142, and warp 3 in 2145. Since we know that the Enterprise NX-01 launched with an experimental warp 5 engine in 2151, the prototype warp-4 vessel U.S.S. Franklin must have been built somewhere in the late 2140s. This is sustained by several other observations: the ship is very close in design and size to the Enterprise NX-02 (relatively flat with the nacelles almost directly attached to the saucer section); it has transporters that were only used for cargo (Enterprise NX-01 was the first with a transporter that could also transport humans); and it still has conventional torpedoes for weapons (Enterprise NX-01 started out with these, but soon switched to photon torpedoes).
So the U.S.S. Franklin must have been used as a cargo ship long before Edison received command of it. By that time, it must have been at least 11 years old, capable of only warp 4 and without transporters for personal transfer. Since Edison was already upset about losing his job as a MACO, being offered an obsolete ship may have added to his frustration.