When Javert is contemplating suicide, he is on a bridge over the River Seine and is east of the Notre Dame cathedral. As we are shown the flowing river and as he jumps into the river, the river current is shown to flow eastward (away from Notre Dame). The River Seine actually flows to the west as it goes past Notre Dame.
During the final act (1832), Javert wears the medal of a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. The medal is the modern version, a five-pointed Maltese Cross mounted on a green palm wreath. The period version had a bronze wreath.
When Javert gets the letter from Paris informing him that "Valjean" has been caught, the tricolor French republican flag is seen hanging in the street. But this scene takes place in 1823, during the Bourbon restoration. During this time (1815-30) the tricolor was not in use
The bishop is shown wearing liturgical vestments including a chasuble and a stole. In the 19th century the stole (which in this scene is over the chasuble) would have been worn crossed over the chest UNDER the chasuble. The mostly incorrect practice of wearing a stole over a chasuble did not start until after Vatican Conference II in the 1960s.
The bishop is wearing incorrect liturgical vestments. He is shown wearing a dalmatic which is the vestment for a deacon with a stole worn 'priest-wise' on top. A french bishop of this period would have worn a 'fiddle-back' Latin chasuble with crossed stole underneath.
When a young child hops on the back of a horse drawn wagon, very clear views are given of the caliper disc brakes on the rear axle of the wagon. Brakes like this were not used until 1890 at the earliest.
When we first see Enjolras speaking before the crowd during "Look Down", he and Marius are holding pamphlets in their hands. When Enjolras sings his line "Where is the king who runs this show?", he raises his hand above his head and the camera does a quick cut for a close up -- revealing that the pamphlet has vanished from his hands.
When Valjean gets down on one knee to tell Cosette of her mother's fate, he appears to reach up and take his hat off. When the camera goes from Cosette back to Jean, his hat is still sitting on top of his head.
Very near the end of the song "Stars," a shot from behind Javert shows he is facing Notre Dame and the moon is in the sky to his right. Although the moon is to his right and illuminates buildings in the background from that perspective, the light reflected off of Javert's forehead is coming from his left.
The goof items below may give away important plot points.
After "A Little Fall of Rain", Enjolras, who is wearing a red jacket, and another character kneel down to pick up the dying Eponine. As the shot changes, it is clear Enjolras is standing up while carrying Eponine. However, in the following shot, the other character has Eponine in his arms and Enjolras is kneeling behind Marius.
When Enjolras is killed, we see him standing by the window and raising the red flag in his right hand. As he falls backwards the shot changes and we see him fall and hang out of the window, but the flag is now in his left hand.