When Charlie is describing the civilizations that provided the clues and star maps leading them to the distant moon, he explains that these civilizations were all separated by centuries and had no contact. In this list he includes Sumerians, Babylonians, and Egyptians (among others). The Babylonian Empire rose out of the city-states of the Sumerians, borrowing heavily from their language, culture, and religions. It is also well known that the people of Sumer/Babylon had much contact with the ancient Egyptians via trade and war.
In the first shot of Prometheus, it is moving at high speed. When it enters the target planet/moon's atmosphere, it must slow down which should mean that the thrusters would be pointing forwards and down, not straight backwards as seen.
When Vickers awakes from her cryo-sleep she asks David how long they were asleep. David says "2 years, 4 months, 18 days, 36 hours and 15 minutes" - which is actually 2 years, 4 months, 19 days, 12 hours and 15 minutes. However, as this is a science fiction film, we do not know if they are stating the units of time as measured on Earth.
The goof items below may give away important plot points.
When Vickers is standing and facing Weyland while she talks to him about why he made the journey, her hands change position several times. In one shot, they are in front of her while in the next shot, they are behind her.