Sam refers to 1st Lieutenant Emily Lowenbrau of the U.S. Coast Guard. Sam would not have referred to a Coast Guard officer as "1st Lieutenant" because there is no such rank in the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard follows the Navy's rank designations. Emily Lowenbrau may have been a Lieutenant Junior Grade (LTJG), equivalent to a 1st Lieutenant in the Army, or a Lieutenant (LT), equivalent to a Captain in the Army. In either case, Sam would have referred to her simply as "Lieutenant".
As C.J. leaves Toby's office, after showing him the memo, she closes the door. The next shot shows Josh and Toby talking about the second year not being better then the first. Over Josh's right shoulder you can see the door is open again.
Bartlet tells Leo "you came to my house and said Jed let's run for President". However a flashback in a later episode indicates that Leo first approached Bartlet about running for President in his office in New Hampshire.