The Doctor, as "James McCrimmon," claims to have studied at the University of Edinburgh under Dr. Bell. Dr. Joseph Bell was a lecturer and expert in observational deduction. He served as a mentor of Arthur Conan Doyle, who used Bell as a model for Sherlock Holmes.
In the original series' second season episode "The Crusade", William Hartnell's Doctor wistfully comments "I almost wish I was knighted too" after seeing Ian Chesterton being dubbed Sir Ian by Richard Lionhart himself. To that Vicky replies: 'That'll be the day!'; and so indeed, this episode marks the day.
The Doctor passes himself off as Doctor James McCrimmon from the township of Balamory. Jamie McCrimmon was a companion of the second Doctor (Patrick Troughton). Balamory is a fictional Scottish village where the popular children's television series Balamory (2002) is set.
Torchwood Reference: The estate on which Sir Robert lives is called Torchwood. After the events take place, Queen Victoria vows that to honor the acts of Sir Robert, she would found an institute dedicated to finding such strange events. She would name it The Torchwood Institute
At one point Sir Robert, played by Derek Riddell offers to go out of the window and help Queen Victoria down. She replies that he is like her very own Sir Walter Raleigh. Derek Riddell had recently played Sir Walter Raleigh in The Virgin Queen (2005).