The seven main models are:
#1 Brother Cavil
#2 Leoben Conoy
#3 D'Anna Biers
#5 Aaron Doral
#6 Gina/Shelley Godfrey/"Number Six"
#8 Sharon Valerii/Boomer/Athena
The "Final Five" are:
- Colonel Saul Tigh
- Chief Galen Tyrol
- Samuel Anders
- Tory Foster
- Ellen Tigh
Spoiler-filled explanation of the Final Five:
[spoiler] The "Cylons" that had been created on Kobol (including humanoid models) rebelled, causing the Exodus to the Twelve Colonies. The humanoid Cylons escaped to the "Thirteenth Colony," or Earth. On Earth, they lived as humans (despite being the original humanoid Cylons), until they created their own race of Cylons, which rebelled against them, attacking Earth with nuclear weapons.
Saul and Ellen Tigh, Galen Tyrol, Sam Anders, and Tory Foster escaped the nuclear holocaust on Earth several thousands of years prior to the events of the series. They had developed resurrection technology, so that when the Earth was destroyed and their lives ended, they would resurrect on a ship in Earth's orbit. They traveled to the Twelve Colonies, the journey taking thousands of years without faster-than-light capability, to convince the humans left over from Kobol not to repeat their mistake and develop artificial life again.
Upon their arrival to the Twelve Colonies, they discovered that they were too late. The humans were already at war with the Centurions (this iteration created by Daniel Greystone on Caprica), who had begun to experiment with creating humanoid life (such as the Hybrids, which run the Basestars in the series). The Five, in exchange for peace between the humans and Cylons, gave them the resurrection technology and developed eight humanoid models - the seven listed above, and "Number Seven," or "Daniel." The Armistice was declared, and peace had been achieved, the Cylons disappearing entirely.
The Number Ones, or "Cavils," grew frustrated with being limited to human form, and not being allowed to continue fighting humans. He also grew jealous of Ellen's attachment to Number Seven (Daniel). So Cavil completely destroyed the entire line of Daniels, and erased the memories of the Tighs, Tyrol, Anders, and Tory, scattering them throughout the Colonies with false, implanted memories, to have them live among humanity so they could experience the coming nuclear holocaust from the human perspective.