Arabia Felix, the 'blessed' south of the Arab peninsula (present Yemen), was immensely rich in Antiquity as main exporter, by the world's oldest caravan route, of incense, which was worth its weight in gold. Its eerie, almost lunar stone desert and unique fauna is best preserved on Socotra island, in the Aden Gulf, where slow-growing, centuries-old trees produce the precious resin, alongside medicinal aloe and the rarest red paint, 'dragon blood'. The natives, who harvest and process it all, are of unclear, anciently mixed extraction.
Man's closest relatives, among apes, genetically 98% identical to us, are practically reduced to two African regions, where they are both endangered. Stuty keeps revealing they are even more intelligent, social and behaviorally akin to us then we realized so far. Chimpansees in West Africa and bonobos in Equatorial Africa' Great lakes region urgently need protection from us, who feel to manage our greed and conflicts as well as them, who remain in durable harmony with the wild.
The vast ruins of Ankhor, jungle-swallowed capital of the Khmer empire, testify to the glorious age in the history of Cambodia, mainly Hindu and Buddhist temples. UNSECO supports he painstaking restoration of numerous monuments erected by the mighty kings until the Siamese overpowered their realm.
In the former Coptic empire of Ethiopia, named by the Greeks after burned faces, tribes and people of great ethnic and religious variety live among equally diverse wildlife and natural environments. Along the eastern coast the large, Islamic, internationally semi-nomadic Afar people inhabit a terribly hot desert plateau, harvesting and trading in salt. Other tribes are tiny, often primitive and hostile, some still animistic, with bizarre, partially cruel customs, such as stick fighting and bodily mutilations. The third largest people, the pastoral, egalitarian ...
Wildlife in the Indian Ocean around Insulind is strange, often stunning, sometimes fairy-tale and/or murderous. It includes diverse fish species from tiny to mantra rays and the giant whale shark, crustaceans, slugs, sea-horses where males give life. Rainforests, e.g. on Sulawesi island, are equally rich in varied wildlife, which uses diverse forms of communication. Native people know it well and adapt their lifestyle, such as fishermen-nomads living in boat-supported homes they never leave.
in Ninuit, northern Canada's native Innuit people territory, traditional ice fishing for seals persists. Their natural rival, the polar bear, is threatened because climatic change makes the ice shrink. The region is studied to understand solar winds and the aurora borealis.
On the Indian subcontinent, Hindu tradition inspired great respect for nature even before modern conservation motives. Special veneration goes to region - and/or cast specific species, including killers like tiger and cobra. Some are associated with major gods, such as the elephant with popular Ganesh. Still Chinese 'medical' superstition inspires ruthless poaching, e.g. of the rhinoceros.
The Caribbean coast, once home of pirates, now harbors over 10% of the world's species in the extensive nature reserves of Costa Rica and Belize. Its wildlife varies from the sloth to lively monkeys, from butterflies to snakes and from mighty jaguar to chemically mysterious frogs. Mayan ruins are impressive, some tribal descendant communities persist. Cocos island, in the Pacific opposite Costa Rica, has its own aquatic fauna, the ocean itself a vast, mostly unidentified range.
Polynesia comprises numerous island in the South Sea, some of which are of volcanic origin, as the infernos around some very active volcanoes in Hawai still testify. The Kiloweia is studied since 1912, but also a divinity according to native tradition. Barely petrified lava already springs tropically abundant life. French Polynesia comprises coral-created, erosion-subject atolls (still a dynamic process) and some older islands created by long-dormant volcanoes. Sealife is extremely rich and varied around the coral reefs, which are threatened by fishing, pollution and ...
Southern Africa annually experience major land - and sea animal migrations. Whales and dolphins arrive, like some prey fish species such as sardines and other fish-eaters, including birds such as gannets, from the polar regions to procreate in hot ocean water. On land, endless trails are made by pasture-changing species such as zebras, followed by their predators, such as great cats. White sharks hunt mainly Atlantic seals.
Nubia, now in Southern Egypt and northern Sudan, was a major neighbor of Pharaonic Egypt, most of the time subdued and supplying slaves and warriors. However when the empire fell apart, the '25 dynasty' came from there and transported a poor copy of the glorious civilization to its homeland and people, the Kushites. Egyptian style monuments, mainly in their capital Meroe, testify to their bizarre golden age. Even in the age of Islam, their Red Sea island port remained an international trade center until sand and current shifts made Port Sudan succeed.