IMDb > Bad Education (2004)
La mala educación
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Bad Education (2004) More at IMDbPro »La mala educación (original title)

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Bad Education -- A filmmaker gets a visit from an actor claiming to be an old school friend, drawing him into a twisted web of desire, revenge and murder.


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7.5/10   45,250 votes »
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Release Date:
11 February 2005 (USA) See more »
An examination on the effect of Franco-era religious schooling and sexual abuse on the lives of two longtime friends. Full summary » | Add synopsis »
Nominated for BAFTA Film Award. Another 16 wins & 37 nominations See more »
User Reviews:
A wonderful film despite being hard to watch at times and having some weaknesses at the end See more (161 total) »


  (in credits order) (verified as complete)

Gael García Bernal ... Ángel / Juan / Zahara

Fele Martínez ... Enrique Goded

Daniel Giménez Cacho ... Padre Manolo

Lluís Homar ... Sr. Manuel Berenguer
Francisco Maestre ... Padre José

Francisco Boira ... Ignacio
Juan Fernández ... Martín
Nacho Pérez ... Ignacio (as Ignacio Pérez)
Raúl García Forneiro ... Enrique (as Raúl Gª Forneiro)

Javier Cámara ... Paca / Paquito

Alberto Ferreiro ... Enrique Serrano

Petra Martínez ... Madre
Roberto Hoyas ... Camarero
rest of cast listed alphabetically:
Agustín Almodóvar ... Enrique's pool attendant (uncredited)

Pedro Almodóvar ... Pool cleaner (uncredited)
Luis Martín Gil ... Motero ochentero (uncredited)

Sara Montiel ... Soledad (archive footage) (uncredited)

Pau Poch ... Niño (uncredited)

Leonor Watling ... Mónica (uncredited)

Directed by
Pedro Almodóvar 
Writing credits
(in alphabetical order)
Pedro Almodóvar 

Produced by
Agustín Almodóvar .... producer
Pedro Almodóvar .... producer
Esther García .... executive producer
Original Music by
Alberto Iglesias 
Cinematography by
José Luis Alcaine 
Film Editing by
José Salcedo 
Casting by
Joserra Cadiñanos 
Art Direction by
Antxón Gómez 
Set Decoration by
Pilar Revuelta 
Costume Design by
Paco Delgado 
Jean-Paul Gaultier 
Makeup Department
Juan Casado .... additional hair stylist: second unit
Rosa Castillón .... additional hair stylist: second unit (as Rosita Castillón)
Vicent Gaya .... additional hair stylist: Valencia (as Vicenta Gaya)
Pepito Juez .... hair stylist
Ana Lozano .... makeup artist
Carolina López .... second assistant makeup artist
María Carmen López .... additional makeup artist
Natalia Montoya .... additional makeup artist
Mariló Osuna .... additional makeup artist
Peter Owen .... wig maker
María Elena Pérez .... additional hair stylist
Suzanne Stokes-Munton .... wig maker
Karol Tornaria .... assistant makeup artist (as Carolina Tornaria)
Karol Tornaria .... makeup and hair assistant (as Carolina Tornaria)
Caroline Turner .... wig maker
Jessica Williams .... wig maker
Production Management
Susana Asenjo .... assistant production manager
Sergio Díaz .... assistant production manager
Verónica Díaz .... assistant production manager
Concha Fontenla .... assistant production manager trainee
Esther García .... unit production manager
Toni Novella .... production manager
Second Unit Director or Assistant Director
Alicia Fdez. Alberdi .... trainee assistant director (as Alicia Fernández)
Adolfo Bellido .... third assistant director
Jorge Dorado .... second assistant director (as Jorge C. Dorado)
Ainara Gamero .... second assistant director (as Ainhara Gamero)
Patricia Guadaño .... third assistant director
David Martínez .... assistant director
Art Department
Inés Aparicio .... assistant decorator
Jordi Carrasco .... props: Valencia
Enrique Chirivella .... props: Valencia
Gabriel del Boca .... assistant graphic designer: Studio Gatti
Vicent Díaz .... property master
M.A. Faura .... property master: Barcelona
Alexandra Fernández .... assistant set decorator: Galicia
Toni Fuertes .... property master: Valencia
Toni Fuster .... assistant property master: Valencia
Federico García Cambero .... set decorator coordinator
Enrique García .... construction coordinator
Joseba Garmendia .... second assistant set decorator: second unit
Juan Gatti .... graphic designer
Joxean Goya .... props: second unit
Carlos Grané .... props: second unit
Quique Gutiérrez .... props (as Enrique Gutiérrez)
Mikel Izaguirre .... props
Rafa Jannone .... assistant set decorator: Valencia (as Rafael Jannone)
Mara Matey .... assistant set decorator
Mónica Monedero .... assistant set decorator: second unit
Alejandro Pavón .... props
Rubén Rivas .... graphic designer
Iñaki Rubio .... property master
Germans Salvador .... upholstery: Barcelona (as Germáns Salvador)
Juan Sánchez Castro .... assistant graphic designer: Studio Gatti (as Juan Sánchez)
Alberto Sánchez-Cabezudo .... storyboard artist (as Alberto Sánchez Cabezudo)
Juan Ignacio Viñuales .... props
Sound Department
José Antonio Bermúdez .... sound mixer
Manuel Corrales .... sound effects (as Manolo Corrales)
Jaime Fernández-Cid Buscató .... boom operator (as Jaime Fernández-Cid)
Diego Garrido .... assistant sound editor
Diego Garrido .... assistant sound mixer
Manolo Laguna .... assistant sound editor (as Manuel Laguna)
Ruth Márquez .... assistant boom operator
Rosa Ortiz .... sound editor
Joaquín Pizarro .... sound mixing assistant
Miguel Rejas .... direct sound
Iván Mayoral .... adr recordist (uncredited)
Special Effects by
Mónica Alarcón .... special effects makeup: DDT Efectos Especiales
Xavi Bastida .... special effects makeup: DDT Efectos Especiales
Félix Cordón .... special effects: F&P, S.L.
David Martí .... special effects makeup: DDT Efectos Especiales
Montse Ribé .... special effects makeup: DDT Efectos Especiales
Visual Effects by
Sara Alavés .... visual effects producer
Nike Alonso .... visual effects producer
Jorge Calvo .... visual effects supervisor
Juanjo Carretero .... scanner operator
María Carretero .... digital artist
Óscar Cerdán .... optical effects
Bruno de la Calva .... visual effects: post-production
Eduardo Díaz .... visual effects: post-production
Juancho Fernández .... visual effects: post-production
Tomás González .... visual effects: post-production
Iván López .... visual effects: post-production
Carlos Martínez .... optical effects
Johnny Raphael .... digital artist (as Johnny Raphael Sardi)
Rubén Rivas .... digital artist
Rubén Sanz .... visual effects producer
Jesus Lavin .... digital effects artist: MadPix (uncredited)
Luisma Lavin .... digital effects artist: MadPix (uncredited)
Pablo Urrutia .... digital effects artist (uncredited)
Camera and Electrical Department
Jorge Asenjo .... additional electrician
Fernando Beltrán .... gaffer
Silvia Camacho .... video technician
Miguel Ángel Cano .... additional electrician
Albert Carreras .... camera operator: second unit (as Alberto Carreras)
Natalia Cedres .... video technician: second unit
Roberto Cuadrado .... electrician trainee: Galicia unit
José Ramón Delgado .... assistant camera
Alfredo Díaz .... key grip
Carlos García .... additional electrician
Toni García .... assistant camera: second unit
Juan Carlos Gorriz .... assistant camera: second unit
Luis Lattanzi .... camera trainee
Diego López Calvin .... still photographer
Diego López .... still photographer
Joaquín Manchado .... camera operator
Raúl Manchado .... second assistant camera
José Molero .... grip
José Morales .... electrician trainee: Galicia unit
Juan Pompas .... additional electrician
Enrique Pérez .... electrician
Fernando Requera .... electrician trainee
Antonio Rodríguez .... second assistant camera: second unit (as Toni Rodríguez)
Albert Roige .... camera operator: second unit
Marcelino San Eugenio .... electrician (as Marcelo San Eugenio)
Gemma Silvestre .... video technician: second unit
Alberto Sánchez Beltrán .... electrician (as Alberto Sánchez)
César Villalba .... second assistant camera: second unit
Casting Department
Ana Sanz .... casting assistant
Costume and Wardrobe Department
Ana Cuerda .... costume supervisor
Sonia Isla .... wardrobe
Pepe Reyes .... costume supervisor
Macarena Ribera .... additional wardrobe: Valencia
Marina Rodríguez .... wardrobe: second unit
Paola Torres .... second costume supervisor
Editorial Department
Felisa Catalinas .... negative cutter
Yolanda Cáceres .... color timer
Diego Garrido .... assistant editor
Lionel Hustaix .... color timer
Manolo Laguna .... assistant editor (as Manuel Laguna)
Ascen Marchena .... post-production
Noemí Dulau .... assistant colorist: scanner (uncredited)
Noemí Dulau .... digital intermediate colorist assistant (uncredited)
Location Management
Alberto Barrera .... location manager: Valencia
Xabier Eirís .... location manager: Galicia unit (as Xavier Eiris)
Iván Gómez .... location manager: Barcelona unit
Tato Perdiguero .... location manager
Music Department
Tito Alcedo .... musician: guitar
Chris Barrett .... assistant music recording engineer
Òscar Boada .... chorus director
Javier Casado .... musician: piano
Javier Crespo .... musician: guitar
José Luis Crespo .... score recording & mixing
Ángel Crespo .... musician: percussion
Luis Augusto Da Fonseca .... musician: counterbass
Alejandro Domínguez .... musician: violin
Arnau Farré .... musician: organ
Pavel Gomziakov .... musician: cello
Alberto Iglesias .... conductor: London Session Orchestra
Sonia Lozano .... assistant music producer
Ara Malikian .... musician: violin
Julia Malkova .... musician: viola
Víctor Merlo .... musician: counterbass
Teresa Pont .... musical agent
Raúl Quilez .... additional music mixer
Raúl Quilez .... additional music recordist
Jordi Rigol .... musician: piano
Lluís Rigol .... musician: piano
José Miguel San Bartolomé .... musician: trumpet
Bob Sands .... musician: saxophon (as Bob Sands)
Zograb Tatevosyal .... musician: second violin
Tibor Toth .... musician: counterbass
Martín Verde .... music copyist
Gavyn Wright .... musician: concertino (as Gavin Wright)
Mark Berrow .... musician: violin (uncredited)
Bruce White .... viola (uncredited)
Transportation Department
Miguel Antequera .... transportation coordinator: Valencia
Antonio Barrio .... driver: director
Ángel Megino .... transportation coordinator (as Megino)
Other crew
Rosa María Aznar .... runner (as Rosa Aznar)
Nuria Benito .... administration staff: Galicia
Óscar Benito .... administration staff: Galicia
Luiso Berdejo .... script trainee
Yuyi Beringola .... script supervisor
Alejo Bruna .... runner: second unit
Rubén Bueno .... set runner trainee: Galicia unit
Raquel Castillero .... production assistant: Barcelona
Luz Chouza .... production assistant: Galicia
Cristina Cordero .... administration staff: Galicia unit
Pepe Cruz .... laboratory director (as José Cruz)
Alberto Cuesta .... runner
Adela Donamaría .... production secretary
Concha Doñaque .... coach: Spanish
Daniel Díaz .... runner: second unit
Verónica Díaz .... production assistant
Teresa Elías .... administration staff: Galicia unit
Luis Fabregas .... runner: second unit
Mariola Fuentes .... acting coach
Covadonga R. Gamboa .... production coordinator
Carlos García .... additional production assistant: Valencia unit
Lola García .... executive assistant to director
Lola García .... head production office
Mauricio Diaz Ginato .... coordinator to executive producer (as Mauricio Díaz Ginato)
Javier Giner .... assistant to director
Antonio González .... additional production assistant: Valencia unit
Beatriz Gordo .... payroll
Antonio Goyanes .... story manager
Israel Goyanes .... story manager
Javier Hernanz Zajara .... engineer
Rafael Hostelería .... caterer
Esther Jiménez .... additional production assistant: Valencia unit
José Lozano .... additional production assistant: Valencia
Javier López .... engineer
Christain Mallol .... runner: second unit
Pere Molero .... additional production assistant: Valencia
Yuriria Montero .... production secretary
Roberto Murillo .... religious advisor
Francisco Navarro .... additional production assistant: Valencia
Josep Oliver i Valls .... gardener: Barcelona
Rafael Pajares .... production assistant
Diego Pajuelo .... financial advisor
Marc Pastor .... additional production assistant: Valencia unit
María de los Angeles Paul .... additional production assistant: Valencia unit (as María Ángeles Paul)
Bárbara Peiró .... public relations: international (as Bárbara Peiró)
María Elena Piquer .... additional production assistant: Valencia
Carlota Planas .... legal advisor
Norman Portell .... runner: second unit
Santiago Ramírez .... additional production assistant: Valencia
Laura Ripio .... administration staff: Galicia
Alfredo Robles .... runner
Federico Rozadillas .... production assistant
Javier Ruiz .... administrative assistant
María Paz Sancho .... receptionist
Silvia Sancho .... payroll assistant
Sandra .... coach
Abel Sellares .... runner: second unit
Rosa María Serrano .... press assistant
Xabier Soler .... runner: second unit
Paz Sufrategui .... press attache
Daniel Thomas .... runner: second unit
Lluís Thomas .... runner: second unit
María Isabel Toribio .... additional production assistant: Valencia
Max Trullas .... runner: second unit
Carlos Uceda .... set runner trainee: Galicia
Óscar Valero .... financial director
Jordi Villagras Creus .... gardener: Barcelona
Arancha Yusti .... financial assistant
John Charles .... software engineer: Sony DAC (uncredited)
Michelle Dunton .... script researcher (uncredited)
Guillermo Alonso del Real .... thanks
Antoni Andreu .... thanks
Gisele Arce .... thanks
Javier Benito .... thanks
Gene Cabaleiro .... thanks
Paco Casado .... thanks
Beatriz Castro .... thanks (as Beatriz Fernández Castro)
Pedro Costa .... thanks
Francisco Delgado .... special thanks
Adolfo Domínguez .... thanks
Pedro Díaz .... thanks
Natacha Fernández .... thanks (as Natacha Fernández Galindo)
Juan Flahn .... special thanks
Joan Garcés .... thanks
Carlos García Cambero .... special thanks
Esther García .... special thanks
Lola García .... special thanks
Juan Gatti .... special thanks
Mauricio Diaz Ginato .... special thanks (as Mauricio Díaz)
Javier Giner .... special thanks
Julia Goytisolo .... thanks
Amalia Hermo .... special thanks
Rosario Herraz .... thanks
Lala Huete .... thanks
Fernando Iglesias .... special thanks
Manuel Jodar .... thanks
José Luis López-Linares .... special thanks
Javier Marco .... thanks
Javier Mariscal .... thanks
Teresa Mateos-Cañero .... thanks
Víctor Molero .... special thanks
Francis Montesinos .... thanks
Sara Montiel .... thanks
José Luis Muñoz .... thanks
Joaquín Notario .... special thanks
Francisca Pajuelo .... special thanks
Luis Pardo .... thanks
Lola Redolli .... thanks
Jesús Robles .... special thanks
Amparo Sanmartín .... thanks
Mariano Sastre .... thanks
Jesús Silva .... thanks
Blanca Sánchez .... thanks
Beatriz Uría Gutiérrez .... thanks
Ana Vilches .... thanks
Leonor Watling .... special thanks
Felipe Álvaro .... thanks
Crew believed to be complete

Production CompaniesDistributorsSpecial EffectsOther Companies

Additional Details

Also Known As:
"La mala educación" - Spain (original title)
See more »
Rated NC-17 for a scene of explicit sexual content
106 min
Color (Eastmancolor)
Aspect Ratio:
1.85 : 1 See more »
Sound Mix:
Argentina:16 | Australia:MA15+ | Brazil:18 | Canada:18A (Alberta/British Columbia/Ontario) | Canada:R (Manitoba) | Canada:14 (Nova Scotia) | Canada:13+ (Québec) | Denmark:11 | Finland:K-15 | France:12 | Germany:12 | Hong Kong:III | Hungary:16 | Iceland:16 | Ireland:18 | Italy:VM14 | Japan:R-15 | Mexico:C | Netherlands:12 | New Zealand:R16 | Norway:15 | Peru:14 | Poland:15 | Portugal:M/16 (Qualidade) | Russia:18+ | Singapore:R21 (cut) | South Korea:18 | Spain:18 | Switzerland:16 (canton of Geneva) | Switzerland:16 (canton of Vaud) | Taiwan:R-18 | UK:15 | USA:NC-17 (certificate #41010) | USA:R (certificate #41607) (special edition)

Did You Know?

Gael García Bernal fired off an angry riposte to New York Times reporter Lynn Hirschberg after she claimed that he had fallen out with Pedro Almodóvar over filming the explicit homosexual love scenes in the film. Bernal wanted it on record that he had had absolutely no reservations about taking the role.See more »
Audio/visual unsynchronized: When young Ignacio is singing to Father Manolo as a birthday present his lips move a little before we hear the lyricsSee more »
Ignacio:I think I've just lost my faith at this moment, so I no longer believe in God or hell. As I don't believe in hell, I'm not afraid. And without fear I'm capable of anything.See more »
Movie Connections:
Featured in 2005 Glitter Awards (2005) (V)See more »
Moon RiverSee more »


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52 out of 92 people found the following review useful.
A wonderful film despite being hard to watch at times and having some weaknesses at the end, 31 May 2004
Author: bob the moo from United Kingdom

Enrique is a film director working on his new project when an old school friend, Ignacio, arrives looking for acting work. Enrique fobs him off with excuses and Ignacio leaves him with a story he has written called 'The Visit'. The story is based on their childhood together as well as having a totally fictional section where Ignacio (Zahara). As Enrique reads the story it takes him back to his childhood effectively where they fell in love as boys before being separated by Father Manolo who also loved Ignacio. When he decides to make the film of the story it only serves to spark more memories as well as bringing revelations.

When I read the plot summary for this film I assumed that it would be difficult to penetrate (pardon the pun) and that I would struggle to follow it. Now that I think back on it I wonder how on earth I managed to follow a film that has threads and characters that don't exist even within the film and it is to the film's credit that it works really well. The film appears to have about three of four stories but really it is only one story that we are being told and a very effective story it is. It is engaging and very well written – we care about the characters even as they change and trick us. Only the final 20 minutes appear to be unsure of themselves and it is here that the film drags slightly, but at till this point it is all great. This is not to say it is an easy watch because it isn't.

If you are homophobic then this is not the film for you – I am used to seeing shows (Oz, 6 Ft Under) where such acts are portrayed but I was taken aback by the graphic nature of the acts here. I don't mean you see anything but it leaves very little to your imagination. This is not a problem – it's just that many men may find this difficult to watch. Likewise scenes involving mutual masturbation between young boys is hardly something that one can watch without feeling slightly uncomfortable. However the one thing the film does through all this is deliver good characters. As much as I couldn't watch Ignacio licking his fingers to wet his 'area' and ease penetrate I still liked him as a character. Even more pleasing was the fact that the film never makes Father Manolo a monster; of course there is no sympathy for the man in the film but it could have just made him a lecherous beast who the audience immediately hate – a pantomime villain – but the script creates a more complex character.

The cast do a great job of delivering these characters and they make it work very well even if come of them have to change characters midstream or be one of several actors playing the same character. Martínez plays the most consistent character in the film and he does well with a good part, even if he has a less showy role than some others. Bernal has the most difficult role and he does really well to keep the audience with him while delivering all sorts of roles! If nothing else he is a brave actor and he deserves good parts to do more work like this. I don't know the rest of the actors by name but I enjoyed the other queen in the fictional part and also the guy who played Manolo in the fictionalised and childhood sections. Boira's Ignacio lacks subtlety and is overblown – but by his point of the film I think that was the whole point.

Overall this is far from most people's cup of tea – even those used to seeing art films may find it hard going due to the graphic simulation of the sexual acts within the film. But despite this the film is really well delivered. Many Almodóvar fans have said this is one of his lesser films but I cannot agree when I think of the skill he displays in keeping the difficult narrative together. The characters are mostly well written and the story is engaging even if it flags a little bit at the end.

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