IMDb > Paragraph 175 (2000)
Paragraph 175
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Paragraph 175 (2000) More at IMDbPro »

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Release Date:
14 November 2001 (France) See more »
Historian Klaus Müller interviews survivors of the Nazi persecution of homosexuals because of the German Penal Code of 1871, Paragraph 175. Full summary » | Full synopsis »
Plot Keywords:
9 wins & 5 nominations See more »
User Reviews:
"I didn't even know why I was being sent to the camps!" See more (19 total) »


  (in credits order)

Rupert Everett ... Narrator (voice)
Klaus Müller ... Himself - Historian
Karl Gorath ... Himself
Pierre Seel ... Himself
Heinz F. ... Himself
Annette Eick ... Herself
Albrecht Becker ... Himself
Gad Beck ... Himself
Heinz Dörmer ... Himself
rest of cast listed alphabetically:

Marlene Dietrich ... Herself (archive footage) (uncredited)
Magnus Hirschfeld ... Himself (archive footage) (uncredited)

Adolf Hitler ... Himself (archive footage) (uncredited)
Ernst Röhm ... Himself (archive footage) (uncredited)

Directed by
Rob Epstein 
Jeffrey Friedman 
Writing credits
(in alphabetical order)
Sharon Wood 

Produced by
Janet Cole .... producer
Michael Ehrenzweig .... producer
Rob Epstein .... producer
Jeffrey Friedman .... producer
John Hoffman .... producer: Home Box Office
Klaus Müller .... associate producer
Sheila Nevins .... executive producer: Home Box Office
Howard Rosenman .... co-producer
Original Music by
Tibor Szemzö 
Cinematography by
Bernd Meiners (director of photography)
Film Editing by
Dawn Logsdon 
Production Management
Michael Ehrenzweig .... production supervisor
Elena Figarola .... production manager: Europe (as Ilena Figarola)
Sari Gilman .... post-production supervisor
Volker Heise .... production manager: Europe
Joe Hoffman .... post-production supervisor
Jules Hussey .... production manager: Europe
Gabriele Seidel .... production manager: Europe
Mark Sorensen .... post-production supervisor
Sound Department
Pascal Capitolin .... sound recordist
Lora Hirschberg .... sound re-recording mixer
Al Nelson .... sound designer
Steve Romanko .... sound re-recordist
Jurgen Scharpf .... sound re-recording mixer (as Jürgen Scharpf)
Editorial Department
Gary Coates .... color timer
Gary Coates .... colorist: post-production services, Western Images
Sari Gilman .... second editor
Jacquie Lawrence .... commissioning editor: Channel Four Television
Salome Milstead .... assistant editor
Mark Sorensen .... editor: post-production services, Western Images
Other crew
Roberto Acordi .... travel arrangements
Richard Alderman .... translator
Christy Applegate .... intern
Tassilo Aschauer .... production and research asssitant: Europe
Paul Brennan .... legal services
Carlos Cabrales .... producer: graphics and titles
Bill Norfleet Craft .... intern
Kate Davidson .... intern
Michael A. Dively .... funding provided by
Robert D. Dockendorff .... funding provided by
Terri Fredlund .... intern
Melanie Parson Gao .... translator
Pari Garvanos .... assistant to producer
Jacolyn Harmer .... translator
Esmond V. Harmsworth .... funding provided by
Gerrit Hermans .... production crew: Europe
Albrecht Hoffman .... production crew: Europe
Joe Hoffman .... producer: graphics and titles
Joshua H. Johnson .... producer: graphics and titles
Fatime Kahveci .... production crew: Europe
Nancy L. Kittle .... funding provided by
Thomas Kufus .... production services: Zero films, Berlin
Arthur Laurents .... funding provided by
Rachel Lipsits .... intern
Torsten Löhn .... production crew: Europe
Daniel McCarthy .... intern
Madeline S. McEneney .... production associate
Marianne McEvoy .... translator
Barry McKay .... intern
Norbert Mentrop .... production crew: Europe
Hillel Meyer .... translator
Greta Miskatel .... translator
Lars Morgenroth .... production crew: Europe
Klaus Müller .... research director
Devra Noily .... translator
Sönke Ohlen .... production crew: Europe
Annette Perry .... accountant
Matthew Riutta .... intern (as Matt Riutta)
Whitney Saik .... assistant: Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman
Inbar Sarig .... translator
Verena Sixt .... translator
David Abravanel Stein .... archival material
Amelia Stephenson .... intern
Frank A. Suchomel Jr. .... funding provided by
Michael John Suchomel .... funding provided by
Joerg Taszman .... translator (as Jörg Taszman)
R.D. Tong .... accountant
Jason Topolski .... intern
Emmanuelle Vuillequez .... production crew: Europe
November Wanderin .... intern
November Wanderin .... translator
Vanessa Warheit .... intern
Johannes Weidinger .... funding provided by
Regina Wosnitza .... translator
Donald Bird .... special thanks
Ellen Bruno .... special thanks
Paul Camarillo .... special thanks
Susan Clark .... special thanks
Cappy Coates .... special thanks
Julie Dorf .... special thanks
Ellis Driessen .... special thanks
Diana Elbaum .... special thanks (as Dianna Elbaum)
Michael Engel .... special thanks
Mark Epstein .... special thanks
Vincent Escareno .... special thanks
Raye Farr .... special thanks
Connie Field .... special thanks
Michael Mitch Fricke .... special thanks (as Michael Fricke)
Eric Friedman .... special thanks
Richard Gordon .... special thanks
Leigh B. Grode .... special thanks (as Leigh Grode)
John Haptas .... special thanks (as John Haptos)
Paul Herman .... special thanks
Deborah Hoffmann .... special thanks
Jeff Iorillo .... special thanks
Deborah Kaufman .... special thanks
Ayse Kenmore .... special thanks
Hubert Kennedy .... special thanks
Gerard Koskovich .... special thanks
Mark Leno .... special thanks
Matthew Lesar .... special thanks
James Lichti .... special thanks (as Jim Lichti)
Michael Lumpkin .... special thanks
Sue Marcoux .... special thanks
David Mixner .... special thanks
Jennifer Morris .... special thanks
Sharon Mueller .... special thanks
Jenni Olson .... special thanks
Mark Page .... special thanks
Lucy Massie Phenix .... special thanks
Janis Plotkin .... special thanks
Mark Pogachefsky .... special thanks
Frances Reid .... special thanks
Jan Rofekamp .... special thanks (as Jan Röfekamp)
Kristine Samuelson .... special thanks (as Kris Samuelson)
Ellen Schneider .... special thanks
Ken Schneider .... special thanks
Veronica Selver .... special thanks
David Shepard .... special thanks
Gail Silva .... special thanks
Chris Simms .... special thanks
Alan Snitow .... special thanks
Wieland Speck .... thanks
Jim Steakley .... special thanks
Peter L. Stein .... special thanks (as Peter Stein)
Jamie Stobie .... special thanks
Leslie Switt .... special thanks
Margaret Teskey .... special thanks
Jack Walsh .... special thanks
John Wright .... special thanks
David Young .... special thanks

Production CompaniesDistributorsOther Companies

Additional Details

Also Known As:
81 min | Germany:75 min (TV version)
Sound Mix:
Filming Locations:

Did You Know?

The statute of Paragraph 175 was amended several times. The Nazis broadened the law in 1935 and increased its prosecutions by an order of magnitude; thousands died in concentration camps, regardless of guilt or innocence. East Germany reverted to the old version of the law in 1950, limited its scope to sex with youths under 18 in 1968, and abolished it entirely in 1988. West Germany retained the Nazi-era statute until 1969, when it was limited to "qualified cases"; it was further attenuated in 1973 and finally revoked entirely in 1994 after German reunification.See more »
La Revue de CuisineSee more »


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11 out of 12 people found the following review useful.
"I didn't even know why I was being sent to the camps!", 7 September 2005
Author: Mikeonalpha99 from United States

Paragraph 175 is a powerful documentary that deals with a provocative subject. I just wish filmmakers Jeffrey Friedman and Rob Epstein had fleshed out the subject a bit more. While this film about gay men who were persecuted and imprisoned under the Nazi regime, is in many respects absorbing, the film ultimately suffers from an overly narrow and constricted focus.

Perhaps the problem was that there were just not enough men alive today who were willing to talk about their experiences. From the outset, the pool of interviewees was certainly going to be limited, but also limited is the actual archival footage of life in the concentration camps.

Instead the directors have chosen to pepper the film with well-preserved family photographs, and lively footage of gay and lesbian culture blossoming during the days of the Weimar Republic after WW1. Sensitively narrated by British actor Rupert Everett, Paragraph 175 is all about the German penal code, which was originally enacted in 1871, and later used by the Nazis, to outlaw homosexuality.

The penal code stated: "An unnatural sex act committed between persons of male sex is punishable by imprisonment; the loss of civil rights may also be imposed," But Paragraph 175 was never really enforced until the Nazi's came to power. This documentary centers on six emotional accounts of the most elderly and frail survivors of the concentration camps who, up until now, have repressed their stories.

There's a Jewish gay resistance fighter who posed as a Hitler Youth member to rescue his lover from a Gestapo transfer camp in an ultimately futile effort; a photographer who was arrested and imprisoned for homosexuality, who upon his release joined the army because of the lack of men in his hometown and he "wanted to be with men." There's a young man who was freed from a sentence at Dachau only to be interned again at Buchenwald, and a Frenchman imprisoned from Alsace, who breaks down after telling of being raped and subject to inhuman torture. Their stories are indeed heart wrenching, because unlike the Jews, they have forced to live quietly, unable to share their horrific experiences for so long.

It is interesting to note that the penal code didn't cover lesbians. The Nazis considered lesbians to be "curable." Women were regarded, as vessels of motherhood - increasing the German population was top priority - therefore, they were exempt from mass arrest. Most lesbians went into exile or quietly married gay men. One woman, who tells her story in the film, was given exit papers and was lucky enough to escape to England.

The statistics are staggering: Between 1933 and 1945, some 100,000 men were arrested for homosexuality, roughly half of them were sentenced to prison, and from 10,000 to 15,000 were sent to concentration camps. The camps were used for re-education, slave labor, castration and sadistic medical experiments. It's believed only about 4,000 survived their ordeal.

The situation didn't improve after the war. Paragraph 175 remained in force until the late sixties, so many gay men were re-imprisoned and subject to repeated persecution. In this respect, Epstein and Friedman should be largely commended for bringing this subject to the attention of the world, and telling these powerful personal stories before the last survivors die. Mike Leonard September 05

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