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Episodes cast for
"The West Wing" (1999) More at IMDbPro »

Season: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7
Year: 1999 | 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 | 2005 | 2006


Season 1


Season 1, Episode 1: Pilot

22 September 1999
The West Wing staffers are introduced as each learns via phone or pager that the President was in a cycling accident. Josh faces the possible loss of his job after an on-air insult of a political opponent, which Toby tries to prevent by having Josh make a personal apology. Sam's fling the previous night with Laurie, who unbeknownst to Sam is a call girl, puts him in hot water, which he compounds when ineptly lecturing a class of 4th-graders about the White House and then asking their teacher which child is Leo's daughter. Leo must deal with the fallout from Josh's blunder, as well as 137 Cuban refugees who escaped on rafts and are seeking asylum. The president walks in during during Josh's apology, recites the First Commandment, and lambastes three Christian pols for not denouncing a fringe group.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Moira Kelly ... Mandy Hampton

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Annie Corley ... Mary Marsh

Lisa Edelstein ... Laurie

Suzy Nakamura ... Cathy

Allison Smith ... Mallory O'Brien

Marc Grapey ... Billy

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

F. William Parker ... Rev. Al Caldwell

Kathryn Joosten ... Mrs. Landingham

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret
Devika Parikh ... Bonnie
David Sage ... John Van Dyke

Jana Lee Hamblin ... Reporter #1

Mindy Seeger ... Reporter #3

Ossi Taylor ... College Student #1

Tressa DiFiglia ... College Student #2 (as Tressa di Figlia)
Wendell Wright ... Economist #1

Hamilton Mitchell ... Economist #2

Molly Schaffer ... Senior Staffer

Melissa Fitzgerald ... White House Staffer
Wendy Blair ... Flight Attendant #2

Elizabeth Greer ... Flight Attendant #3

Peter James Smith ... Congressional Liason #1

William Duffy ... Congressional Liason #2 (as Bill Duffy)
Marlene Warfield ... Maid

Dean Biasucci ... Man
Diane Michelle ... Woman (voice)
Markus Toure Boddie ... D.C. Cop (as Marcus Boddie)

Dafidd McCracken ... USS Officer Mike
Alex Baik ... Secret Service Agent (uncredited)

Shawn Fornari ... Secret Service Agent to Pres. (uncredited)
Michael Haboush ... Cop (uncredited)

Sergio Kato ... D.C. Cop (uncredited)

Bill LeVasseur ... Presidential Aide (uncredited)

Season 1, Episode 2: Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc

29 September 1999
Josh trumps a potential Democratic challenger in a masterful political move and then hires the challenger's chief of staff and ex-girlfriend Mandy Hampton. Toby tries to warn Sam away from his friendship with the call girl, but to Toby's horror, Sam seems intent on reforming her. CJ tries to spin the latest clash between President Bartlet and Vice President Hoynes. After an American plane is shot down carrying Bartlet's physician, Bartlet's response leaves Leo worried about the President's response.

Season 1, Episode 3: A Proportional Response

6 October 1999
After being offered "a proportional response" to the Syrian military's downing of a U.S. military plane on a medical mission (and carrying his newly named personal physician), the president demands an option that will have greater impact. Leo gradually must talk him down, while Bartlet snipes at everyone, including Abby. The president ultimately agrees to the initial option, but is not happy about it. Charlie Young is introduced as an applicant for a messenger job whom Josh decides to hire as Bartler's personal aide (note: he mentions being sent to Josh by Mrs. De La Guardia, who is later introduced in season four as Debbie Fiderer, who becomes Mrs. Landingham's replacement).

Season 1, Episode 4: Five Votes Down

13 October 1999
When an admittedly weak gun-control bill the White House has been backing turns out to be five votes short of House passage, Josh makes deals and threats to several Democratic reps, while Leo appeals to Hoynes for help. Elsewhere, while working the bill, Leo misses his anniversary, which he tries in vain to atone for, but eventually his wife Jenny decides to leave him.

Season 1, Episode 5: The Crackpots and These Women

20 October 1999
On the series' first "Big Block of Cheese" Day (nicknamed "Total Crackpot Day" by Josh), staffers meet with reps of various organizations causes, e.g., C.J. hosts a group that wants $900 million for a "wolves only" highway. The president has everyone to the residence for a homemade chili party, we learn about Mrs. Landingham's past, and Zoey is introduced to the group, including Charlie, for whom the intro soon becomes fateful (recurring romantic relationship throughout the series).

Season 1, Episode 6: Mr. Willis of Ohio

3 November 1999
In the first of several episodes throughout the series' run that portrays ordinary Americans and how they interact with and ultimately affect the W.H., an Ohio middle school social studies teacher, a widow who has recently filled the brief remaining term of his late wife in the House, joins two other reps to meet with Toby and Mandy about changes to unfair rules in the U.S. Census written into the latest federal budget. The other two, career politicians, are completely resistant to the changes, but Mr. Willis is swayed by a potent argument Toby makes regarding "strict constructionism" (generally conservative and libertarian belief that the U.S. Constitution is not a living document, and must be followed as written, unless officially amended through standard 38-state ratification) and the 14th Amendment. Toby is impressed with the man and his open-mindedness. Elsewhere, Sam tutors C.J. on the finer points of the census. Late in the episode, the staff meets for a late-night poker party.

Season 1, Episode 7: The State Dinner

10 November 1999
While preparing for (and enduring) a state dinner for the newly-elected president of Indonesia, staff deal with a multitude of other problems: Josh and Mandy argue over the best way to handle an FBI standoff with militants in Idaho; Leo (and eventually Bartlet) intervenes in a negotiations between the Teamsters Union and national reps for the trucking industry; Toby tries to convince an Indonesian cabinet member to release a friend of his, an activist or incites anti-government protests, from prison; Sam witnesses Laurie at work as a call girl, serving as the state dinner date for a big fund raiser; and a pre-season hurricane initially threatens the Atlantic Coast, and then moves out to sea, where it puts an entire naval fleet in peril.

Season 1, Episode 8: Enemies

17 November 1999
A crucial banking bill is at risk when political rivals of environmentally sensitive President Bartlet attach a land-use rider to it that would allow strip-mining some of the Montana wilderness. C.J. tries to stamp out rumors that the Chief Executive chastised the Vice President during a cabinet meeting. An overworked Leo isn't too keen on his independent daughter Mallory dating the handsome Sam. C.J. continues to fend-off the romantic charms of a perceptive reporter with a knack for sniffing out juicy stories. Former lovers Mandy and Josh clash over the administration's attempt to jettison the land-use rider that might also ruin passage of the more important banking bill.

Season 1, Episode 9: The Short List

24 November 1999
When a Supreme Court justice retires, President Bartlet has a golden opportunity to impact the court's composition by nominating a favorite judge but when further study reveals the candidate's conflicting ideology, the President might change his mind and opt for another judge. In addition, a headline seeking congressman on the House Government Oversight Committee accuses the White House staff of substance abuse -- a dicey issue for one important member.

Season 1, Episode 10: In Excelsis Deo

15 December 1999
When a homeless veteran dies on the National Mall and his body remains uncollected for hours, Toby becomes fixated on getting him a proper burial.

Season 1, Episode 11: Lord John Marbury

5 January 2000
When India sends troops into Kashmir, President Bartlett calls for a British former ambassador to India to help out - over Leo's strong objections.

Season 1, Episode 12: He Shall, from Time to Time...

12 January 2000
When the President collapses on the eve of his State of the Union, it's diagnosed as the flu. But when the First Lady cancels a trip and rushes home to look after him, Leo suspects the first family is hiding something about Bartlett's medical condition.

Season 1, Episode 13: Take Out the Trash Day

26 January 2000
In preparation for the Friday night briefing for the Saturday papers and news broadcasts -- nicknamed "take out the trash day" because it disposes of all the stories the White House doesn't want heavy coverage on, and because Saturday is the least read paper of the week -- the staff take on a variety of chores: C.J. prepares to meet with the family of a Matthew Shepard-type victim of murder just because he was gay, and discovers something unexpected about the young man's reticent father; Josh and Sam contend with an angry Republican house committee leader who wants to make a deal to avoid public hearings on Leo's alcoholism; the president must read and wince through a graphic report on sex education in public schools; Danny pesters C.J. about an aide to the v.p. living on high off of taxpayer dollars.

Season 1, Episode 14: Take This Sabbath Day

9 February 2000
A drug dealer's appeal of the federal death penalty is rejected by the Supreme Court, which upholds the death sentence with execution scheduled for the following Monday. One of the defense lawyers on the case is Sam's old high school bully, and he appeals directly to Sam to involve the president. During a weekend in which he was supposed to be in a yacht race, Sam opts to stay at the W.H. and try to convince his fellow staffers and ultimately Bartlet that the president should commute the sentence. Meanwhile Josh, after a night of heavy drinking at a bachelor party, meets congressional campaign manager Joey Lucas while is hung over. She assails him for having the DNC cut off funding for her candidate, but the decision was deliberate, as the W.H. likes the conservative nutjob currently holding the Calif. seat. Opinions on the death penalty are exchanged throughout the weekend, including those of Quaker Joey Lucas and Toby's rabbi, and Bartlet winds up calling both the Pope and his old parish priest from N.H. for counsel.

Season 1, Episode 15: Celestial Navigation

16 February 2000
In a lecture at Georgetown, Josh recalls the previous week at the White House, during which he replaced a dentally impaired C.J. in the press room and gave a memorably disastrous briefing, responding to a reporter's question (sarcastically, although taken quite seriously) that the White House had a secret plan to fight inflation. Meanwhile, he's intermittently on the phone with Toby and Sam, who have flown to Connecticut and are now lost in a rental car on the Connecticut Turnpike. They've gone on critical business: the president's nominee for the Supreme Court, Roberto Mendoza, was pulled over by the local police for "driving while Hispanic" and refused to take a drunk test, so he was incarcerated. Toby has to talk the judge down from making a big public issue of his arrest by fighting the charges in court.

Season 1, Episode 16: 20 Hours in L.A.

23 February 2000
The President meets Zoey's new bodyguard on a 20-hour trip to California; Josh tries to keep a fund raiser from being canceled; Leo needs the VP to break a 50-50 tie in the Senate.

Season 1, Episode 17: The White House Pro-Am

22 March 2000
When the Federal Reserve Chairmen dies, Bartlet must quickly choose a successor in order to avoid a financial chaos. However, he is reluctant to pick the obvious choice for Fed Chair, who used to be Abby's boyfriend. The matter is worsened when Danny Concanon receives a quote from the first lady saying she supports her ex-boyfriend, leaving Bartlett more irate. Meanwhile, Josh and Toby are courting congressman in order to get more votes for a bill they already won. However, a congresswoman, who felt 'betrayed' by Abby, poses a threat to the bill.

Season 1, Episode 18: Six Meetings Before Lunch

5 April 2000
The morning after Mendoza's confirmation, various staff members are brought back to earth by difficult meetings.

Season 1, Episode 19: Let Bartlet Be Bartlet

26 April 2000
The West Wing staff are feeling malaise as it seems they never get anything accomplished. Meanwhile, a leaked memo is a land mine that could embarrass the administration.

Season 1, Episode 20: Mandatory Minimums

3 May 2000
A newly energized administration prepares to take on soft money, increase addiction treatment, and remove mandatory minimum sentencing.

Season 1, Episode 21: Lies, Damn Lies and Statistics

10 May 2000
The staff waits for a poll to tell them if their new, activist policies are moving them in the right direction. C.J. feels like her opinions are being discounted.

Season 1, Episode 22: What Kind of Day Has It Been

17 May 2000
A stealth fighter is shot down over Iraq, leading to Bartlet ordering a military rescue as Toby worries about his brother trapped on a space shuttle orbiting the Earth. CJ deals with the ramifications of misleading the press about the rescue as the staff prepares for a town hall meeting that night. The town hall meeting goes well until the President leaves...and shots ring out.

Season 2


Season 2, Episode 1: In the Shadow of Two Gunmen: Part I

4 October 2000
The President is rushed to hospital following a shooting; staffers field questions on protection measures and executive authority. Flashbacks show how key staff members joined the Bartlet campaign.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Stockard Channing ... Abbey Bartlet

Timothy Busfield ... Danny Concannon

Tim Matheson ... Vice President John Hoynes

Elisabeth Moss ... Zoey Bartlet

Michael O'Neill ... Secret Service Agent Ron Butterfield

Jorja Fox ... Agent Gina Toscano

Anna Deavere Smith ... Nancy McNally

Kathryn Joosten ... Mrs. Landingham

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret Hooper

Daniel von Bargen ... Air Force General Ken Shannon

Michael Bryan French ... Hospital Administrator

Pamela Gordon ... Woman in Bar

Andy Umberger ... Cal Mathis

Jim Ortlieb ... Dr. Keller

Peter White ... Mr. Gage

Ernie Lively ... Mr. Loch
Jody Wood ... Mr. Cameron

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol Fitzpatrick

Kim Webster ... Ginger

Kris Murphy ... Katie

Mindy Seeger ... Chris

Randy Brooks ... Arthur (as Randolph Brooks)

Ivan Allen ... TV Anchor

Willie Gault ... Agent Madsen

Elijah Mahar ... Agent Dixon

Dafidd McCracken ... Agent #1
Juan A. Riojas ... Agent #2

Bradley James ... Agent #3

Al Twanmo ... Agent Cho
Derek Coleman ... Agent #4

Ming Lo ... Dr. Lee

Rhonda Stubbins White ... Dr. Whitaker
Sean Moran ... Dr. Holbrook

Carol Kiernan ... Doctor

Dan Gunther ... Doctor #1

Maria McCann ... Nurse

Trisha Simmons ... Nurse Debbie
Ted Garcia ... TV Reporter
David Ursin ... Bartender
Matthew Robert Gottlieb ... Military Aide (as Matt Gottleib)

Thomas Spencer ... Aide #3

Andy Milder ... Senator's Aide
Robyn Pedretti ... Senator's Aide

Gary Carlos Cervantes ... Civilian Advisor (as Gary Cervantes)

Victor McCay ... Peter
Kat Sawyer-Young ... Sam's Secretary
V. Kim Blish ... Volleyball Player
Scott Parrott ... Paramedic #1
Sunita Koshy ... Paramedic #2

Shawn D. Woodyard ... Paramedic #3 (as Shawn Woodyard)

Chad McKnight ... Paramedic #4 (as Chad Knight)
Tanya Linette Smith ... Paramedic #5
Kivi Rogers ... Paramedic #6

Gary Hershberger ... Jerry (as Garrison Hershberger)
Peter Birkenhead ... Steven

Jane Lynch ... Reporter

Jerry Sroka ... Reporter
Jenny Buchanan ... Questioner
Harris Laskawy ... Questioner #2
Alex Baik ... Secret Serviceman (uncredited)

Brian Dragonuk ... NBC Video Cameraman / DC (uncredited)
Christopher Francis ... Passenger (uncredited)
Thomas M. Hagen ... News Cameraman (uncredited)
Paul Moncrief ... Staffer (uncredited)

Season 2, Episode 2: In the Shadow of Two Gunmen: Part II

4 October 2000
A suspect in the presidential shooting is caught; staffers anxious await news on Bartlet and Josh's injuries; flashbacks show how C.J. and Donna joined Bartlet's campaign.

Season 2, Episode 3: The Midterms

18 October 2000
With the midterm elections coming up, Toby looks for a way to stop hate groups; Charlie and Zoey decide whether to continue their relationship; President Bartlet discovers the egg cream and is concerned about an ultra-right-wing candidate running for school board in his old district in New Hampshire; and Sam is asked to put White House help behind an old friend running for Congress. This episode includes the President's confrontation with a right-wing radio talk show host using a famous list of modern applications of Biblical laws. Oh, yes, and psychics at Cal Tech and the Fermi National Accelerator Lab ...

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Elisabeth Moss ... Zoey Bartlet

Claire Yarlett ... Dr. Jenna Jacobs

Rebecca Creskoff ... Sarah Jordan

James Denton ... Tom Jordan (as Jamie Denton)

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret

Alfonso Freeman ... Andrew Mackintosh
Myles Kilpatrick ... Jeffrey Mackintosh (as Myles Killpatrick)

Franc Ross ... Sonny Saunders

Jesse Corti ... Dave Stewart

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol
Devika Parikh ... Bonnie

Kim Webster ... Ginger

Peter James Smith ... Ed

William Duffy ... Larry

Alan McRae ... Gary with a 'G'
Tracy McCubbin ... Lilly (uncredited)

Heather Sullivan ... White House Intern (uncredited)

Season 2, Episode 4: In This White House

25 October 2000
After a Republican commentator trounces Sam on television, President Bartlett decides to hire her over the objections of the staff. Josh and Toby mediate a conference between U.S. drug companies and an African President whose country is dying of AIDS.

Season 2, Episode 5: And It's Surely to Their Credit

1 November 2000
Sam helps Josh battle his health insurance company; Ainsley Hayes encounters her firebrand boss and hostile colleagues; Abby gives the President some good news about his health; C.J. discovers a retiring General intends to publicly criticize the president.

Season 2, Episode 6: The Lame Duck Congress

8 November 2000
The administration considers recalling Congress to pass a nuclear test ban treaty; a Ukranian politician arrives unannounced at the White House; Sam reluctantly asks Ainsley to summarize a position paper; C.J.'s personal and professional relationship with Danny becomes more complex.

Season 2, Episode 7: The Portland Trip

15 November 2000
C.J. joins the President on a flight to Portland after a wisecrack about Notre Dame; Josh seeks to defeat an anti-gay marriage bill; Sam wants to rewrite an education speech; an oil tanker appears to be violating UN sanctions; Josh teases Donna over her dating record.

Season 2, Episode 8: Shibboleth

22 November 2000
Dozens of Chinese stowaways are discovered in a container ship in California; Toby looks to pick a fight over school prayer with a recess appointment; Thanksgiving at the White House sees C.J. in charge of turkeys and Charlie looking for the ultimate carving knife.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

F. William Parker ... Rev. Al Caldwell

Annie Corley ... Mary Marsh
Deborah Hedwall ... Josephine McGarry

Kathryn Joosten ... Mrs. Landingham

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret

Sam Anderson ... John LaSalle
Henry O ... Jhin Wei

John Prosky ... Aide #4

John Mariano ... Bertram

Sharon Omi ... Gardner

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol
Devika Parikh ... Bonnie

Kim Webster ... Ginger
Jonah Rooney ... Morton Horn

Joe D'Angerio ... Russo

Al Rodrigo ... Commander Cale

Charles Noland ... Reporter #1

Timothy Davis-Reed ... Reporter #2

Ivar Brogger ... Aide #1

Cameron Daddo ... Aide #2

Rich Cooper ... Aide #3

Russ Cootey ... Police Officer

Anne Lockhart ... White House Press (uncredited)
Paul Moncrief ... Core Staffer (uncredited)

Ken Parham ... Coast Guardsman (uncredited)

Season 2, Episode 9: Galileo

29 November 2000
The President and NASA plan a TV event for a probe's landing on Mars; satellite photographs show a suspicious-looking fire in Russia; Leo asks Toby and Josh to decide on the next postage stamp; Sam and C.J. have personal reasons for not wanting to accompany the President to a concert.

Season 2, Episode 10: Noël

20 December 2000
Josh speaks to a psychiatrist about the events of the last three weeks: Toby hired musicians for the foyer, an Air Force pilot disobeyed orders, Yo-Yo Ma performed at the White House, and Josh managed to cut his hand quite badly.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Adam Arkin ... Dr. Stanley Keyworth

Paxton Whitehead ... Bernard Thatch

Gregory Alan Williams ... Robbie Mosley (as Gregalan Williams)

Gary Carlos Cervantes ... Bobby (as Gary Cervantes)

Daniel von Bargen ... Air Force General Ken Shannon

Yo-Yo Ma ... Himself

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol

Kris Murphy ... Katie

Purva Bedi ... Kaytha Trask

Jana Lee Hamblin ... Reporter Bobbi

Timothy Davis-Reed ... Reporter Mark
Robert Noble ... Valet
Deborah Snipes ... Staffer
Eric Payne ... Secret Service Agent (as Eric A. Payne)

Greg Wrangler ... Secret Service Agent
Michael Crider ... David Housman
Etyl Leder ... Rebecca Housman
Kate Cronin ... Choir Singer (uncredited)
Sean Allen Jones ... Uniformed Secret Service Agent (uncredited)
Patricia Prata ... Princess of Spain - White House Christmas celebration w / Yo Yo Ma (uncredited)

Season 2, Episode 11: The Leadership Breakfast

10 January 2001
Toby wants to use a bipartisan breakfast to discuss real issues instead of making it a staged event; Sam floats the idea of moving the press room across the street; Leo wants Josh to apologize to a columnist on his behalf; Leo and Toby realize they need to start thinking about reelection.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Felicity Huffman ... Ann Stark

Corbin Bernsen ... Henry Shallick

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol

William Duffy ... Staffer Larry

Peter James Smith ... Staffer Ed

Kim Webster ... Ginger
Patrick Falls ... Steward

Bruce Winant ... Henry Hanson
Lesley D. Van Arsdall ... Reporter

Dude Walker ... Simon

Charles Noland ... Steve
Thomas J. McCarthy ... Senator Thomas (as Tom McCarthy)
Rhonda Overby ... Reporter
Tim Williams ... Reporter

Ivan Allen ... Newscaster

Marc Goldsmith ... Staff Aide #1

Kevin Fry ... Staff Aide #2
Sean Allen Jones ... Uniformed Secret Service Agent (uncredited)
Paul Moncrief ... Core Staffer (uncredited)

Season 2, Episode 12: The Drop In

24 January 2001
Sam meticulously prepares a speech for the President to give to the environmental lobby, but Toby wants to sneak in some criticism of their failure to condemn environmental terrorism. Leo tries to convince the President to support his pet project - a missile defense shield - despite its continued failure to produce results, and the fact that it likely contravenes an anti-ballistic missile treaty. Several countries including Great Britain have sent new ambassadors to Washington to be recognized by the White House. C.J. travels to New York on a delicate mission to ask for a political favor from a comedian.

Season 2, Episode 13: Bartlet's Third State of the Union

7 February 2001
While a live TV show is broadcast from the West Wing following the State of the Union, the staff must covertly deal with a hostage situation in Colombia. CJ learns that a special guest at the state of the union has a black mark on his record that could taint the administration. Ainsley Hayes is afraid to meet the President in person.

Season 2, Episode 14: The War at Home

14 February 2001
President Bartlet is fighting a war on two fronts as he tries to rescue hostages in Colombia and deal with explaining to his wife why he's breaking his word to her by running for a 2nd term.

Season 2, Episode 15: Ellie

21 February 2001
The surgeon general makes some controversial comments about marijuana, leading to an attack by family values groups and an unsolicited comment by Bartlet's middle daughter, Ellie, to Danny Concannon that her father wouldn't fire the s.g. The president summons Ellie from med school in Baltimore to the W.H., and we learn that she, unlike her parents and sisters, is shy and reticent, and has always felt like the family outcast in Jed's eyes. Elsewhere, Sam gives a visiting movie producer a verbal lynching for publicly calling the president a coward after Charlie turns down a W.H. screening of his salacious new film.

Season 2, Episode 16: Somebody's Going to Emergency, Somebody's Going to Jail

28 February 2001
On this year's "Big Block of Cheese Day", a college friend of Donna's asks Sam to help her get her late grandfather, accused of bring a Communist spy inside the U.S. government, a presidential pardon; dealing with the recent revelation that his father had been having an affair for the past 27 years, Sam faces off with an F.B.I. agent, and later with Nancy McNally, over the pardon. Elsewhere, a group of cartographers completely re-educates C.J. on her perception of the globe, and one-time protester Toby, with the help of a straight-talking female security guard, speaks for the w.h. at a rally to protest against U.S. participation in the WTO and various free trade agreements.

Season 2, Episode 17: The Stackhouse Filibuster

14 March 2001
Josh finalizes a six billion-dollar health care that has strong support from both parties in both houses and appears to be a slam dunk for passage, but 78-year-old Senator Howard Stackhouse pulls a last-minute surprise: he wants money added for autism research or he'll filibuster. Thinking it's just a bluff, Josh blows off the senator, who then filibusters for more than eight hours while the w.w. staff waits desperately to begin their weekend, with the episode unfolding as staffers write e-mails to family members describing the evening's action. Elsewhere, Sam tries to eliminate various costly government documents, for which he's taken to task by a very young intern.

Season 2, Episode 18: 17 People

4 April 2001
Following the Vice-President's remarks to him, Toby realizes the truth behind the President's illness: multiple sclerosis. Toby, Leo, and Bartlet discuss the possible political implications of this if it goes public including possible jail time for the 17 people who now know about the illness. Meanwhile Sam, Josh, Donna and the rest of the staff, unaware of the illness, struggle with a speech the President is to give at the White House Correspondents Dinner.

Season 2, Episode 19: Bad Moon Rising

25 April 2001
President Bartlett talks to the White House Counsel about the concealment of his MS. An enraged Toby has CJ grill the West Wing staff to find a leaker. Josh and Donna spar over a financial bailout of Mexico.

Season 2, Episode 20: The Fall's Gonna Kill You

2 May 2001
White House Counsel Oliver Babbish interviews CJ once she learns of the President's condition. The First Lady learns she may be legally vulnerable. Donna frets over news of a falling satellite.

Season 2, Episode 21: 18th and Potomac

9 May 2001
With hypothetical polling numbers showing them its political suicide, staffers prepare to announce the President's condition. As they do, a military crisis flares up in Haiti and Josh faces off against two senators who are against the Government's tobacco-industry suit. But as bad as the day seems to be going, a tragedy will come from a car wreck at 18th and Potomac that will effect everything.

Season 2, Episode 22: Two Cathedrals

16 May 2001
As the Haitian army continues their seizure of the American embassy there, Bartlet and the staff prepare for the announcement that Bartlet has M.S. and most decide whether or not Bartlet will seek re-election. As the funeral for Mrs. Landingham takes place and the announcement draws nearer, Bartlet thinks back to his past in search of the answer to the question everyone is asking: Will he seek re-election?

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Stockard Channing ... Abbey Bartlet

Anna Deavere Smith ... Nancy McNally

Kirsten Nelson ... Young Mrs. Dolores Landingham
Jason Widener ... Young Jed Bartlet

Don McManus ... Greg Summerhays

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret Hooper
Lawrence O'Donnell ... Dr. Bartlet (as Lawrence O'Donnell Jr.)

Gregory Alan Williams ... Robbie Mosley (as Gregalan Williams)

John Bennett Perry ... Rep. Bill, D

Kathryn Joosten ... Dolores Landingham

Fred Ornstein ... Congressman Harry Wade
Bill Gratton ... Advisor #1

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol Fitzpatrick
Devika Parikh ... Bonnie

William Duffy ... Larry

Peter James Smith ... Ed

Kim Webster ... Ginger
Patrick Thomas O'Brien ... Hanson

Christopher Murray ... Tony Phillips

Shelley Malil ... Renfro

Angelo Tiffe ... Greenway

Jane Lynch ... Reporter in Briefing Room

Charles Noland ... Reporter Steve

E.E. Bell ... Advisor #2
Robert A. Becker ... Minister Monohan
Trevor Eddy ... Young Bartlet's Friend
Doris E. McMillon ... Reporter Sandy (as Doris McMillon)

Ivan Allen ... News Anchor Roger Salier
Lewis Grenville ... Reporter
Wendy Poole ... Staffer

Michael Ahl ... Air Force Major General (uncredited)

Brian Dragonuk ... Mourner at Cathedral (uncredited)
Thomas M. Hagen ... Pallbearer (uncredited)
Sean Allen Jones ... Uniformed Secret Service Agent (uncredited)

Tracey Kimball ... Reporter (uncredited)
Christopher J. Marcinko ... Third Reporter (uncredited)

Andrellos Mitchell ... Funeral Mourner (uncredited)

Season 3


Season 3, Episode 1: Isaac and Ishmael

3 October 2001
The West Wing goes under lock down as a suspected terrorist is found to be working at the White House. Stuck with a group of high school students who were visiting the White House, the staffers, President Bartlet, and the First Lady all debate the issues regarding terrorism. Meanwhile, Leo sits in on the questioning of the terrorist suspect and learns a lesson about our perceptions of terrorists.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Stockard Channing ... Abbey Bartlet

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Ajay Naidu ... Rakim Ali

Michael O'Neill ... Secret Service Agent Ron Butterfield

Jonathan Nichols ... Agent Cleary

Jeanette Brox ... Student

Cyd Strittmatter ... Joan

Frantz Turner ... Agent Greg

Susie Geiser ... Marjorie Mann
Mongo Brownlee ... Secret Service Agent

Josh Zuckerman ... Boy #1 - Billy Fernandez
Ben Donovan ... Boy #2

Marcus Toji ... Boy #3

Arjay Smith ... Boy #4
Kristine Woo ... Girl #1

Chastity Dotson ... Girl #4
Dan Horton ... Agent #1

Willie Gault ... Agent #2
William James Jones ... FBI Agent (as William J. Jones)

Ashlee Levitch
Thomas Longo ... Secret Service

Charleigh Harmon ... First High School Student (uncredited) (unconfirmed)
Sean Allen Jones ... Uniformed Secret Service Agent (uncredited)

Katie Keim ... High School Girl (uncredited) (unconfirmed)
Paul Moncrief ... Core Staffer (uncredited) (unconfirmed)

Mark Oxman ... Benji (uncredited)
Cynthia Windham ... Agent Coffey (uncredited)

Season 3, Episode 2: Manchester: Part 1

10 October 2001
The staff is hunkered down in the Bartlets' hometown of Manchester, N.H., where they work with political consultants Bruno, Doug and Connie on the president's official announcement that he'll be seeking a second term; meanwhile, they all lament various W.H. events of the previous four weeks, including a huge strategic mistake by Josh, a pivotal FDA announcement scheduled for the same day as the president's speech, an ongoing battle between then president and first lady, and a major press room gaffe by C.J.

Season 3, Episode 3: Manchester: Part 2

17 October 2001
With the staff all bickering with one another in Manchester, especially adversarial speech writers Toby and Doug, who angrily disagree about whether Bartlet should make a public apology for lying about his MS, and with the president sniping at everyone, the second-term announcement speech is locked. Abby ultimately forgives the president for deciding to run again without discussing it with her, and he ultimately apologizes to the staff in private for keeping his condition from them, which they expect will soon lead to a whole slew of grand jury subpoenas.

Season 3, Episode 4: Ways and Means

24 October 2001
Special prosecutor Clem Rollins announces the grand jury subpoenas in the case of president's failure to disclose his MS to the public, and the list includes pretty much every West Wing staffer and Bartlet family member; Sam and Connie meet with an important Latino activist from Calif. who is considering supporting a primary challenger to Bartlet; C.J. convinces everyone that the special prosecutor is too reasonable, and that the W.H. needs a "better enemy" in the investigation, prompting the staff to provoke a Congressional inquiry.

Season 3, Episode 5: On the Day Before

31 October 2001
While the w.h. is hosting a gala dinner for Nobel Prize winners, Leo and the president learn of a suicide bomb in an Israeli cafe that took the lives of two American students in Tel Aviv for a soccer match, and the staff attempts to manage the president's first veto, of a House bill eliminating the estate tax, and the threat of an override the same night. Sam and Toby first try to sway a contentious Dem. From Tennessee who wants a whole list of farming and ranching concessions in exchange for his vote and three proxies; after a pep talk from Leo, they devise a substitute plan that may prove even more effective, if it works. Josh takes the governor of Indiana into a private meeting to determine if the man plans to challenge Bartlet in Democratic primary. C.J. takes heat from a smarmy Dallas entertainment reporter who is in town for the Nobel dinner but winds up having to cover the veto and override vote, but after the reporter embarrasses her during a live stand-up, C.J. one ups the woman in front of the press corps. Later, Sam, Toby and Josh try to help the president decide what to say to the parents of the two murdered students.

Season 3, Episode 6: War Crimes

7 November 2001
After a fatal shooting in Texas, the president asks Hoynes to go down there and speak out for gun control, in spite of his history opposing it. Donna makes a gaffe in front of the Congressional committee. Leo argues with an old friend about the creation of an international war crimes tribunal.

Season 3, Episode 7: Gone Quiet

14 November 2001
When the military loses contact with a submarine in hostile waters, the President must choose between risking the lives of the crew and provoking North Korea. CJ relishes the Majority Leader's flubbing of an interview. Babbish informs Abby that she is the weak link in the President's legal defense.

Season 3, Episode 8: The Indians in the Lobby

21 November 2001
On the day before Thanksgiving, CJ has to deal with two Stockbridge-Munsee Indians who won't leave the lobby until they get an answer on an application their tribe submitted 15 years ago. Josh tries to arrange the extradition of an underage boy who's parents sent him to Italy after he killed his teacher. The President learns why Abby wants to have Thanksgiving at Camp David this year, and places and anonymous call to the Butterball Hotline.

Season 3, Episode 9: The Women of Qumar

28 November 2001
CJ cannot control her outrage when the US agrees to an arms sale to Qumar, a country that brutally abuses women. Josh meets with Amy Gardner, a leading women's group lobbyist. The content of a Smithsonian exhibit draws protest from a veteran's group. Leo and the President discuss options when the possibility of a Mad Cow infection strikes the US beef industry.

Season 3, Episode 10: Bartlet for America

12 December 2001
In an episode dotted with flashbacks, Leo and his attorney Jordon Kendall (Joanna Gleason) face a Congressional inquiry into whether the president lied to the American people regarding his MS, but this particular day of hearings concerns itself more with Abby and her secretly medicating Jed, and later with Leo's having fallen off the wagon during the campaign (a politically motivated Republican rep on the committee witnessed Leo drunk in his room three days before the nomination); we see the meeting in which Leo talked N.H. Governor Bartlet into running for president, introducing his idea, "Bartlet for America", on a cocktail napkin, which the president later frames and returns to Leo as a gift in thanks for all he's done for the president over the years; Cliff Calley, Donna's boyfriend and special counsel to the judicial oversight committee, asks the committee chair to halt the inquiry before the rep can compel Leo to admit his personal transgression; Leo asks Jordon to Xmas Eve dinner.

Season 3, Episode 11: H. Con-172

9 January 2002
In a private, late-night, Cliff Calley informs Leo and Jordon he has negotiated a settlement in the Congressional witch hunt over Bartlet's MS: Bartlet can accept a joint congressional censure (House Concurrent Resolution 172, or H.Con. 172); Leo initially refuses to bring it to the president, insisting it will devastate the president and affect him for the rest of his life, but he does mull it over, and consults with Josh and repeatedly with Jordon about it; Josh begins his romantic pursuit of women's issues advocate Amy Gardner, but flubs it a couple of times while she continues dating other men.

Season 3, Episode 12: 100,000 Airplanes

16 January 2002
On the night of the State of the Union, Sam has to explain the process of writing the speech and grading reaction to it to a magazine reporter (Traylor Howard) throughout the evening; C.J. arranged the coverage unaware that the reporter, Lisa Sherbourn, is Sam's ex-fiancée; flashing back to the speechwriting process, we see the president dining with several of Abbey's medical colleagues, and they ponder the future of cancer research, motivating Bartlet to ask that a section be added to the SOTU in which he calls for U.S. scientists to find a cancer cure by 2010; the staff, convinced that the Congressional censure is weighing heavily on the president, tries to talk him out of this bold but risky proposal.

Season 3, Episode 13: The Two Bartlets

30 January 2002
Toby is concerned when President Bartlett forgoes an opportunity to speak out in favor of affirmative action during the Iowa caucuses and confronts the President on the real reasons underlying his Dr. Jekyl & Uncle Fluffy personality shifts. Meanwhile Josh makes plans for a vacation with Amy and then must cancel them.

Season 3, Episode 14: Night Five

6 February 2002
Josh covertly brings a psychiatrist to the white house to meet with the President who has been unable to sleep for five days.

Season 3, Episode 15: Hartsfield's Landing

27 February 2002
A fictitious small town in N.H. is the site of the first presidential primary vote, and the results from Hartsfield's Landing, announced at 12:07 a.m., will dominate the news all day until the final tally, so Josh wants favorable press for the president, prompting to ask Donna to persuade a local couple she knows to reconsider their vote. Elsewhere, Bartlet has just returned from India with a collection of antique chess sets he gives as gifts to the staff. He plays Toby while they discuss their recent blow-up, Bartlet's insomnia and Toby's fervent belief that the president's enormous intellectual gravitas is an asset, not a liability, to the campaign. He also plays Sam as they discuss a critical detente standoff between China and Taiwan. And Charlie and C.J. stand off in a series of pranks over a missing copy of the president's private schedule.

Season 3, Episode 16: Dead Irish Writers

6 March 2002
Another lively episode centered around a lavish W.H. party, this one for Abbey's birthday the night before a N.H. medical board begins hearings on whether to suspend her license over her secret treatment of her husband's MS. Abbey repairs to the residence with C.J. and Amy Gardener to get blitzed on wine and discuss her concerns about her medical career. Donna is restricted from joining the party because a decades-old cartography error puts her birthplace in Canada. Toby and U.K. Ambassador Lord John Marbury (Roger Rees) repair to a nearby bar to share a bottle of very rare Scotch and to discuss a planned W.H. visit by an IRA political activist, which culminates in Marbury surprising Toby with his progressive vision. Late in the episode, Donna joins the women in the residence and makes an off-the-cuff remark that causes Abbey to rethink her stance on the issue of her license.

Season 3, Episode 17: The U.S. Poet Laureate

27 March 2002
Poet laureate Tabitha Fortis visits D.C. to attend a White House dinner in her honor, and Toby develops a bit of a crush on her, but he also must admonish the somewhat flighty beauty against publicly criticizing the president for his refusal to sign an international anti-land mine treaty; Donna discovers a website devoted to Josh, and he soon becomes sucked into the online chat about his activities and ego; speaking via remote to a local morning show in Philadelphia and unaware that the mike is on, Bartlet makes a stray comment impugning opponent Robert Richie's intelligence, for which the staff, particularly C.J., takes a lot of heat from Richie campaign and the press.

Season 3, Episode 18: Stirred

3 April 2002
On a typical night in the west wing, Sam returns from a hockey game and Josh asks him to meet with V.P. Hoynes about saving an education bill. Back at the W.H., Josh, Toby, Leo, C.J., Larry and Ed all meet about the prospect of replacing Hoynes on the ticket in the next campaign. Bartlet helps Charlie do his federal taxes, and while both think Charlie should expect a refund, thanks to last year's so-called economic stimulus, he instead owes money to the IRS. A security emergency occurs when two trucks, one stolen and containing nuclear waste, crash in a tunnel in Idaho, threatening to explode and wipe out a nearby town. Donna asks Josh to ask the president for a special proclamation recognizing her favorite h.s. teacher. Bartlet can't oblige, but he comes up with a very uplifting consolation for Donna to let her teacher know how much she appreciated her. Episode title refers to James Bond's preference for "shaken, not stirred," which Bartlet insists results in a weak martini; this ties into Hoynes and Leo making the president aware that Hoynes is a recovering alcoholic, just as the w.w. staff is considering bumping him.

Season 3, Episode 19: Enemies Foreign and Domestic

1 May 2002
A meeting with the new Russian president becomes politically dangerous when surveillance photos show Russia building a nuclear reactor in Iran. C.J. is assigned Secret Service protection after receiving death threats.

Season 3, Episode 20: The Black Vera Wang

8 May 2002
The President and Leo deal with reports of a planned terrorist attack, but more shocking is who is behind it. Sam receives an anonymous package with bad implications for the campaign. C.J. chafes under her Secret Service protection.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Mark Harmon ... Agent Simon Donovan

Ron Silver ... Bruno Gianelli

John Amos ... Percy Fitzwallace

Evan Rachel Wood ... Hogan Cregg

Patrick Breen ... Kevin Kahn, Ritchie's Communications Director

Gerry Becker ... Network News President #1

Leon Russom ... Network News President

Michael Holden ... Network News President #4

Thomas Kopache ... Assistant Secretary of State Bob Slatterly

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret Hooper

Ned Schmidtke ... Admiral, Navy Chief of Staff

Kim Webster ... Ginger
Devika Parikh ... Bonnie

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol Fitzpatrick
Kate S. Palmer ... Assistant (as Kate Palmer)

Maggie Baird ... Ms. Carney, Network News President #3

Steve Tom ... General Hodges, Army Chief of Staff
Ivy Jones ... Martha, Office of Protocol
Ralph Meyering Jr. ... Civilian Tom
David O. Katz ... Assistant (as David Katz)

William Jones ... Secret Service Agent Jamie Dawson (as William J. Jones)

David Burtka ... Intern Bruce
Penny Griego ... TV Reporter

Richard Saxton ... TV Reporter

Timothy Davis-Reed ... Mark O'Donnell (uncredited)
Sean Allen Jones ... Uniformed Secret Service Agent (uncredited)

Season 3, Episode 21: We Killed Yamamoto

15 May 2002
Bartlet and Leo debate on how to deal with the impending visit of the Qumari Defense Minister, whom U.S. intelligence officers have conclusively linked to terrorists. Sam dismisses an ingenious idea to trap Republican presidential opponent Robert Ritchie in an unsavory position over the Everglades, but comes around after talking to Toby. C.J. begins to develop a relationship with Secret Service agent assigned to her, Simon Donovan. Josh and Amy are locked into a battle over a welfare reform bill, whose outcome will cost one of them their job.

Season 3, Episode 22: Posse Comitatus

22 May 2002
Bartlet, Leo, Sam, Toby, and C.J. travel to New York City for a Catholic fund raiser at a long Broadway play called "The War of the Roses". Josh steps up his efforts to beat his girlfriend, Amy, in their struggle over welfare reform, which leads to her forced resignation. C.J. and Secret Service agent Simon Donavon grow closer, but a tragic event cuts short their relationship. At the play, Bartlet comes face to face with Republican Presidential candidate Rob Ritchie and faces the decision of whether or not to assassinate the Qumari Defense Minister.

Rob Lowe ... Sam Seaborn

Dulé Hill ... Charlie Young

Allison Janney ... C.J. Cregg

Janel Moloney ... Donna Moss

Richard Schiff ... Toby Ziegler

John Spencer ... Leo McGarry

Bradley Whitford ... Josh Lyman

Martin Sheen ... President Josiah 'Jed' Bartlet

Adam Arkin ... Dr. Stanley Keyworth

Mary-Louise Parker ... Amy Gardner

Mark Harmon ... Agent Simon Donovan

Lily Tomlin ... Deborah Fiderer

James Brolin ... Governor Robert Ritchie, R-FL

John Amos ... Percy Fitzwallace

Kurt Fuller ... SitRoom Civilian Advisor

Michael O'Neill ... Secret Service Agent Ron Butterfield

David Huddleston ... Sen. Max Lobell, R

Armin Shimerman ... Richard III

NiCole Robinson ... Margaret Hooper

Renée Estevez ... Nancy

Andrew McFarlane ... Anthony, Simon Donovan's 'Little Brother'
William Thomas Jr. ... SitRoom Civilian Advisor David

Fred Sanders ... Ted

Glenn Morshower ... Mike Chysler

Thomas Kopache ... Assistant Secretary of State Bob Slatterly
Wren T. Brown ... 'No' Vote Man
Ken Thorley ... 'No' Vote Man

Basil Hoffman ... Congressman

Melissa Fitzgerald ... Carol Fitzpatrick
Al No'mani ... Qumari Def. Min. Prince Abdul Shareef

Nasser Faris ... Qumari Translator (as Al Faris)
John David Conti ... Howell

Nate Reese ... Cantwell

Paul Norwood ... Bristol

Randy Brooks ... Arthur Leeds (as Randolph Brooks)

Mindy Seeger ... Chris

Kris Murphy ... Katie Witt

Timothy Davis-Reed ... Mark O'Donnell

Charles Noland ... Reporter Steve

S.E. Perry ... Marine Officer
Heidi Anderson ... Waitress
William Dennis Hunt ... Duke of York

Jeanie Hackett ... Queen Margaret (as Jeanie Hacket)

Orlando Seale ... Young Clifford
Douglas Weston ... Bedford
Adrian Diamond ... Young Boy

Joshua Wolf Coleman ... Chorus
Charles Currier ... Chorus

Russell Edge ... Chorus
Joshua Fardon ... Chorus
Richard Gould ... Chorus

Rob Nagle ... Chorus
Kevin Owers ... Chorus

Graham Shiels ... Chorus

Richard Soto ... Chorus
Glenn Kubota ... Korean Grocer
Karen Tsen Lee ... Reporter

Ted Koch ... Reporter
Mark Gerald Douglas ... Secret Service Agent in NYC

Lisa Datz ... Agent
James Villani ... Thug

Danny Downey ... Thug #2 (uncredited)
Sean Allen Jones ... Uniformed Secret Service Agent (uncredited)

Season 4


Season 4, Episode 1: 20 Hours in America: Part I

25 September 2002
After Bartlet gives a campaign speech at an Indiana farm, Josh, Toby and Donna are left behind by the presidential motorcade and must work their way across the state with the help of the farmer's daughter and, later, a teenage campaign volunteer, enduring many setbacks along the way. Josh and Toby obsess and bicker over how best to play the president's intellectualism, viewed by many as snobbery, against Republican opponent Robert Ritchie's "regular guy" persona, while Donna must keep them on track and communicate with the real Americans they encounter along the way. Back at the W.H., the president deals with a terrorist attack at an Iowa college swim meet, meets with Leo, Nancy and Fitzwallace to discuss how to handle the prospect of the U.S. and/or Israel being accused of a conspiracy in the death of Qumari minister Sharif, and interviews secretarial candidates, including a second round with Debbie Fiderer; the wandering party finally arrive at a city with an airport (presumably South Bend) and stop briefly at a nearby hotel, where they learn about the Iowa attack and Donna chastises the two men for caring only about the campaign and not the people it affects; later in the hotel bar, Josh and Toby meet a man trying to figure out how to pay his daughter's tuition to Notre Dame, and he inspires them to initiate new tax policy.