The dust storm shown on Mars would not have been dangerous to the mission and would not have required the action blown the astronauts so. The air pressure on Mars is a mere 6 millibars (compared to Earth's 1013 millibars), so the "fierce" duststorm would have had the impact of a feather on the people and space craft.
When the three astronauts enter the alien structure and view the solar system model, all the planets (and the Earth's moon) are revolving in the wrong direction. Viewed from the Northern hemisphere, planets rotate counter-clockwise around the Sun, and so does the Moon around the Earth. It is possible that the alien solar system model is seen from the other orientation i.e. our Southern hemispheres of the planets are on top for them. However a Mars with large ocean masses in the top hemisphere is seen, which is in fact our Northern hemisphere of Mars, assuming that water filled the depressions on Mars long ago.
When Phil Ohlmyer shows the "DNA-model" of his dream woman to Jim McConnell, the free floating candy moves in a circular motion around the center of the model. Unless the candy is interconnected, this would be impossible to obtain in real life, as the individual pieces of candy can only have a straight line of motion. Even if you would rotate one candy in a circular motion and then release it, it would continue in a straight line tangent to the circle.
There is a fundamental misunderstanding of how the jet packs work. In space, with no friction or proximal gravitational pull, a single burst from the jets accelerates the operator into constant motion until a counteracting burst slows them down. There would be no need for the multiple instances of everybody "using up fuel" by burning their jets constantly when trying to maneuver.
Inside the face, Jim checks the screen on his wrist to see what the gasses were in the room. It reads "Nitrogen 57% Oxygen 20% Trace Gasses 1%" which doesn't add up to 100%. The nitrogen should be at 79%.
While looking at a DNA sequence Terri Fisher says that the last two chromosomes are missing. What is missing is actually the last two nucleotides of the sequence. DNA does not have chromosomes. Rather, chromosomes are comprised of DNA, and a single chromosome will contain many tens or hundreds of millions of nucleotides.
During the scene where Terri attempts to rescue Woody she resets her fuel readout to 100%, it is then stated that by using only 50% of her fuel the remaining 50% would get her back, This is incorrect. The first 50% would allow her to reach a certain velocity in respect to the ship, the remaining 50% would only allow her to get back to the same velocity as the ship not to the ship itself.
The atmospheric pressure of Mars is less than 1% that of Earth and consists primarily of carbon dioxide, items falling from space would not burn up nearly as quickly in the Martian atmosphere as shown in the movie.
When the crew have exited the ship after it exploding and Woody is flying towards the REMO, Phil looks at his wrist-mounted computer which tells him that Woody is going to overshoot the REMO. However, below the graphic on the right side of the screen, the caption contains a spelling error, reading: "Traget projection and outcome" instead of "Target.... etc."
In the movie it stated that the 23 chromosomes came from mars about a million years ago and set off the explosive growth on the planet earth. Chromosomes are never mentioned in the dialogue. Merely that "they seeded earth" hundreds of millions of years ago. The only goof here is the time scale. Life is believed to have begun roughly 3.5 billion years ago during the Eoarchean period with true multi-celled organisms appearing during the early Proterozoic era, roughly 2 billion years ago.