Surprisingly yes. Especially in the short time depicted in the movie, a person would theoretically survive the exposure to the vacuum of space quite unharmed. Although not every aspect of the scene is correctly depicted, a lot of it is.
Most people would think that a body immediately freezes in space, which is a fair assumption, since the temperature there is well below -200 degree Celsius (-328 degrees Fahrenheit). Paradoxically, this isn't true. The reason is that there is no gas in the space vacuum that can carry sound or absorb heat; most body heat would disperse as radiation, which takes a while longer. So the fact that Justin doesn't freeze is correct; however, his screams would no longer be heard as soon as the airlock door opened and the gas dissipated.
The absence of outside pressure would cause the gasses in our lungs and gastrointestinal tract to expand rapidly, which is why critical damage can be delayed by exhaling before the exposure (which is what Miller correctly orders Justin to do). Normal air pressure on Earth keeps liquids such as water in liquid form; a vacuum causes the water in the skin and muscles to vaporize and expand, causing small superficial arteries to burst and several body parts to swell. However, the human skin is resilient and will be able to withstand the internal pressure build-up from a drop in pressure of 1 atmosphere. So the excessive bleeding which happens to Justin would probably not occur, he would probably survive with some subcutaneous haemorrhaging. Also, the blood that leaves his body remains in liquid form; in reality, it would immediately evaporate.
The loss of pressure outside the body causes nitrogen in the blood to expand as well, and form bubbles inside the blood vessels and tissues. This occurs most often in the joints, and causes decompression sickness, also known as 'the bends' or caisson disease, which can be painful but is rarely lethal. As unbelievable as it sounds, the first 10 seconds or so in space would be uncomfortable, but you could still manage to work with full mental capacity and attempt to take countermeasures; there is still enough oxygen in the blood to keep the brain working, as long as the blood remains circulating. After those 10 seconds, oxygen gradually stops entering the brain (hypoxia), the skin turns blue from oxygen deprivation (cyanosis), and the person would begin to lose consciousness. Convulsions would occur due to lack of oxygen in the brain, but the heart will continue to beat for a while. All negative effects up until that point are generally reversible. It is not until an estimated one-and-a-half minutes that the vacuum would start to affect systemic blood flow, the heart stops, and freezing becomes a serious problem. If a person gets back into a pressurized environment with plenty of oxygen within that time frame, resuscitation is a very likely outcome with only minor injuries. So the fact that Justin is still alive and conscious after the rescue is realistic, only the injuries are probably a bit exaggerated.