Licence to Kill (1989) used a contest advertising campaign to help generate interest for the film. The winner of the contest was promised a cameo role in the next James Bond picture. Unfortunately, due to many production issues, work on this movie did not begin for many years. Nevertheless, the contest winner was given a scene after the long delay. She does not have a speaking part, but you can see her in a lovely gold and black evening dress looking over Onatopp's shoulder as she plays Baccarat against Bond.
Famke Janssen broke a rib during the sauna fight scene, according to her interview for Everything or Nothing (2012). Before filming the sequence, Janssen encouraged Pierce Brosnan to run her into the wall as hard as he could, and actually insisted he do it, citing that the walls were padded.
Features the highest bungee jump from a structure in a movie. The drop was over seven hundred twenty-two feet. The man who did the jump has a cameo as the black-haired Tiger helicopter pilot shot by Onatopp.
This was the first time a German sports car, in this case the BMW Z3, was used as the primary Bond vehicle. The product placement of the BMW Z3 Roadster has been considered to be one of the most successful in film history, according to "The Hollywood Reporter" and the book "Product Placements" by L. Kinney and B Sapolsky. It reportedly cost three million dollars, but recouped the company two hundred forty million dollars in advance sales, partially due to exposure in the media. A limited edition "007 Model" of the BMW Z3 was sold out in a day of it going on to the market. This movie represented the first of a three-picture deal with BMW to promote their cars.
At the time the script was being written, the producers were under the assumption that Timothy Dalton would be renewing the role of Bond. It was written to match Dalton's darker, more realistic portrayal of 007.
"Goldeneye" is the nickname of Bond creator Ian Fleming's beachfront house in Jamaica where, between 1952 and 1964, he wrote the Bond novels and short stories. It was named for the contingency plan that the S.I.S., whose members, included Fleming, devised in the event of a Nazi invasion of Spain.
Because the franchise was caught up in litigation, the six and a half year hiatus between the release of Licence to Kill (1989) and this movie, is the longest gap between Bond films since the franchise first started in 1962.
The first Bond film to be made after the downfall of the Soviet Union, and the end of the Cold War, and thus, the first Bond film to actually shoot in the traditional spy genre cold war country of Russia, St. Petersburg specifically. However, Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey, doubled as St. Petersburg airport, while much of the tank chase was shot in London, and at the new Leavesden studios. This was to reduce expenses, and to cut on security concerns, the entire unit would have needed bodyguards.
First of two appearances by Joe Don Baker as Bond's C.I.A. counterpart Jack Wade, who also appeared in Tomorrow Never Dies (1997). Wade was created as a replacement for Felix Leiter, who had lost his leg (and presumably retired from field work as a result) in Licence to Kill (1989). However, Baker wasn't new in the Bond franchise. He previously played Brad Whitaker, one of the villains of The Living Daylights (1987).
First 007 movie in the series to feature a female, Dame Judi Dench, in the role of M, head of the UK's security agency MI6 (Foreign Intelligence). Dench's character was reportedly inspired by the career of Stella Rimington, former Director-General of the UK's MI5 (Domestic Intelligence) and first woman to head that organization. Lois Maxwell, who played Miss Moneypenny in Bond movies from 1962 to 1985, had made the suggestion of having M as a woman in 1985. Martin Campbell revived that idea for this movie.
Xenia's (Famke Janssen's) hand when James Bond (Pierce Brosnan) arrives in the casino, is two face cards and a seven, or 007. Bond's final hand, when he plays with Xenia, is two face cards and a six, or 006.
Pierce Brosnan hurt his hand in his bathroom at his house in Malibu before shooting began, so in several shots, his hands were doubled by his twenty-two-year-old son Christopher Brosnan, who was the third assistant trainee on the second unit. These include: pulling on a hand-brake in the Aston Martin DB5, flipping open the glove compartment to reveal a bottle of chilled Bollinger champagne, using the laser in the opening bungee jump, and cutting through the floor of the train with the laser in his wristwatch.
The satellite dish at the end of the film is the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, which also appeared in the film Contact (1997). It took about ten minutes for the crew to walk along the walkway from the periphery to the center of the dish.
After Licence to Kill (1989), Michael G. Wilson and Alfonse Ruggiero wrote a script treatment for a Bond film intended to be released in 1991, starring Timothy Dalton, using the title "The Property of a Lady", the title taken from the Ian Fleming short story. According to what little evidence is available about this script (and is printed in the book The Bond Files by Andy Lane and Paul Simpson), the film would have taken place in Scotland, Tokyo, and Hong Kong, and the plot would have involved nanotechnology. Potential directors included John Landis, Ted Kotcheff, and John Byrum. Legal squabbles over the ownership of James Bond, disappointing box-office results on Licence to Kill (1989), and the death of longtime Screenwriter Richard Maibaum, delayed the start of production for several years. Although he was contracted to play Bond a third time (and possibly fourth time), after several years elapsed with no new film, Timothy Dalton announced he didn't want to play the role again. This opened the door for Pierce Brosnan. Several title and concept changes changed The Property of a Lady into this film.
Nails had to be attached to the tires of the Ferrari F355 for the skid in the car chase with James Bond's Aston Martin. This Ferrari was rented and, after colliding with 007's car, had to be repaired overnight, at a cost of eighty thousand dollars.
Sir Roger Moore paid a visit to the set to see his son, Christian Moore, who was working as a Third Assistant Director. He quipped that early tests of Pierce Brosnan hadn't worked out, so he was brought back.
The Bond franchise's traditional home at Pinewood Studios was unavailable, having being booked to shoot First Knight (1995), ironically starring original James Bond, Sir Sean Connery. So, the producers created a new studio from a former Rolls-Royce aircraft engine factory and aerodrome. This studio, at Leavesden in Hertfordshire, was named Leavesden Studios. It was subsequently used for Sleepy Hollow (1999) and Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace (1999). This was the first film to shoot at Leavesden Studios, and when built, it was nicknamed by the production as "Cubbywood".
The reason Bond's Z3 Roadster isn't seen deploying any of its gadgets (apart from the radar) is because the deal with BMW came very late in production. The car used was a prototype, meaning that it couldn't be damaged in any way, or used in any action scenes.
The film's title song did not chart in the U.S., but in the UK, it went to the number seven spot on the charts. The song was written by Bono and The Edge of U2, and performed by Tina Turner. All three were neighbors to each other, living in the South of France. One day, the U2 members went over to Turner's place, whereupon The Edge played the song on Turner's piano. Bono's inspiration for writing the song, was his honeymoon stay with his wife at Ian Fleming's Jamaican beach house Goldeneye, which is also the name of this movie.
Composer John Altman provided the music for the tank chase, after it was decided that Éric Serra's initial arrangement was not to be used, in order to use a more traditional rendition of the James Bond theme. It appears on the soundtrack CD as "A Pleasant Drive in St. Petersburg". As such, the collaboration for this incidental music in the movie is the only instance in the film series that this has occurred.
Whilst on the set of Scarlett (1994), Timothy Dalton officially announced his resignation from the role of James Bond on April 11, 1994. The script for this movie was originally earmarked for Dalton in the role of James Bond.
The "Darth train" sequence was filmed on Nene Valley Railway near Peterborough, Cambridgeshire, England, along the same part of railway where the music video for British rock band Queen, "Breakthru" was also filmed.
Pierce Brosnan was officially introduced to the press as the new James Bond on June 8, 1994, at the Regent Hotel in London. He was sporting a full beard, as he was about to start production on Robinson Crusoe (1997) the next day.
The first draft of the script contained four action sequences that all ended up in future Bond films. Bond and Marina, later renamed Natalya, escaping from a Nuclear explosion underground, and another scene with them avoiding helicopters with giant buzzsaws, ended up in The World Is Not Enough (1999). The U.S. government and MI6 attempting to destroy the space-based weapon "Tempest", renamed "GoldenEye", ended up in Die Another Day (2002), as the attempt to destroy the Icarus weapon. Last, the free fall sequence ended up in Quantum of Solace (2008).
Part of the St. Petersburg tank chase was filmed at Leavesdon Studios. They faked all of the relevant statutes and treasures, and smashed replicas on a UK backlot, but that didn't stop a few breathless "They're destroying our art!" newscasts in Russia.
The title has been used extensively in the James Bond filmed universe. It was used in the title of: this movie; a 1989 television biopic of Ian Fleming, Goldeneye (1989); the James Bond video game GoldenEye 007 (1997), and its remake GoldenEye 007 (2010), as well as another Bond video game, GoldenEye: Rogue Agent (2004) used this name to take advantage of the popularity of the first game, but had a wholly different story. These all make "GoldenEye" the most used phrase for a title in the filmed James Bond universe.
Although it is alleged that Pierce Brosnan's contract to play James Bond specifically prohibited him from appearing in other movies wearing a tuxedo, he appeared in a tuxedo in The Mirror Has Two Faces (1996).
General Leonid Pushkin, James Bond's ally in The Living Daylights (1987), was in the first draft of this movie, and was to play a major part in the film. Just like in The Living Daylights (1987), he was to be used as a pawn in the major villain's scheme. His character was replaced with Dimitri Mishkin.
Chris Columbus is a big James Bond fan, and he was crushed when Pierce Brosnan didn't get cast, when he was offered the part during Remington Steele (1982), but they wouldn't release him from his contract, and he thought Brosnan a phenomenal actor. When the two worked together on Mrs. Doubtfire (1993), Columbus told Brosnan he'd make a great James Bond, even though Brosnan thought that ship had sailed. In 1995, MGM called Columbus telling him they're looking for the new James Bond, and Brosnan was one of the choices so Columbus recommended him; his little contribution to the James Bond saga.
Several scenes from the original screenplay failed to make it to the finished film: During his attack on the Arkangel Chemical Weapons Facility, Bond would have seen off two guards while they played chess. This, and other cut scenes can be seen on the Ultimate Edition DVD. M's first meeting with Bond originally ended with the line "whose boyish charms I might actually have succumbed to ten years ago", implying that there may have been a relationship of some sort in the past. The dialogue was wisely changed to the less ambiguous "whose boyish charms, although wasted on me". There was more of Jack Wade's gardening obsession, which only survives obliquely in the finished film. When Bond and Wade arrived at Zukovsky's, they were originally to have passed a sort of car boot (trunk) sale, where all the goods were illegal weaponry. Inside, Zukovsky would have first been seen dismissing one of the traders, who is trying to sell him counterfeit goods.
"Goldeneye" was the name of Ian Fleming's house in Jamaica. It was also the name of a British Naval Intelligence operation that Fleming organized during World War II, to see if Germany would take over Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar.
After the scene where the tank crashes through the Perrier truck, the company allegedly had every can collected off the ground. Whether the can was perfect, crumpled, or flattened, the company apparently didn't want its product placements to be used for selling of false non-Perrier mineral water.
Martin Campbell's personal dislike of smoking, meant that Bond was to give the habit up again. 007 had started smoking again when Timothy Dalton arrived on the scene, but EON was clearly uneasy about the image this presented, as they placed a "smoking can kill" warning during the end credits of Licence to Kill (1989).
Much of the film industry felt that it would be "futile" for the Bond franchise to make a comeback, and that it was best left as "an icon of the past". The producers even thought of new concepts for the franchise, such as a period piece set in the 1960s, a female 007, or a black James Bond. Ultimately, they chose to return to the basics of the franchise, not following the sensitive and caring Bond of the Timothy Dalton films, nor the political correctness that started to permeate the decade.
For the confrontation between Bond and Trevelyan inside the antenna cradle, Martin Campbell decided to take inspiration from Bond's fight with Red Grant in From Russia with Love (1963). Pierce Brosnan and Sean Bean did all of the stunts themselves, except for one take, where one is thrown against the wall. Brosnan injured his hand while filming the extending ladder sequence, making producers delay his scenes, and film the ones in Severnaya earlier.
According to Producer Michael G. Wilson, some Communist parties protested against "Socialist symbols being destroyed not by governments, but by bikini-clad women" in the title sequence, especially the Communist Party of India, which threatened to boycott the film.
The ID number on the badge of Admiral Chuck Farrell (Billy J. Mitchell) of the Canadian National Defence was No. 2488. Mitchell had previously played the Yacht Commander of "The Flying Saucer" in Never Say Never Again (1983). In the original script, Admiral Farrell was to be an American. According to David L. Robb's book, "Operation Hollywood", this was changed at the request of the Pentagon.
The World Premiere of this movie was held on November 13, 1995, at New York City's famed Radio City Music Hall. This was the first for any Bond film to be held in New York City, and the second in the U.S. for an official franchise Bond movie, after A View to a Kill (1985), and third overall for any Bond movie, after that movie, and Never Say Never Again (1983). The after-premiere party was held at New York City's Museum of Modern Art. The British and European Royal Premiere was held on November 21, 1995, at London's Leicester Square Odeon Theatre in the presence of Prince Charles. The post-premiere party was held at the Imperial War Museum. Pierce Brosnan boycotted the French Premiere, in support of Greenpeace, and in protest of that country's nuclear testing in the South Pacific. The premiere was then cancelled. The French military had supplied the frigate F.S. La Fayette, and a Eurocopter Tiger helicopter, for use in this movie.
In the scene when M gives 007 the GoldenEye mission, M tells 007 not to go off on a personal vendetta and avenge Alec Trevelyan. In the narrative, M referred to the events of Licence to Kill (1989), in which 007 got his revenge upon drug lord Franz Sanchez for torturing Felix Leiter, and murdering Leiter's bride Delia Churchill.
The French Navy provided full use of the frigate F.S. La Fayette, and their newest helicopter, the Eurocopter Tiger to the film's production team. The French government also allowed the use of Navy logos as part of the promotional campaign for the film. However, the producers had a dispute with the French Ministry of Defence over Pierce Brosnan's opposition to French nuclear weapons testing, and his involvement with Greenpeace. As a result, the French premiere of the film was cancelled.
A Russian T-54/55 tank, on loan from the East England Military Museum, was modified with the addition of fake explosive reactive armour panels. In order to avoid destroying the pavement on the city streets of St. Petersburg, the steel off-road tracks of the T-54/55 were replaced with the rubber-shoed tracks from a British Chieftain tank. The T-55 Tank is now on permanent display at Old Buckenham Airport, where the East England Military Museum is based.
The BMW Z3 was featured in the film several months before its release, and a limited edition "007 model" sold out within a day of being available to order. As part of the car's marketing strategy, several Z3s were used to drive journalists from a complimentary meal at the Rainbow Room restaurant, to the premiere at Radio City Music Hall.
The literal translations of some of the movie's foreign language titles include: Operation GoldenEye (Greece); 007 Against GoldenEye (Brazil); 007 and the GoldenEye (Finland); Gold Eye (Slovenia and Slovak); James Bond 007 - GoldenEye (Germany); The Eye of Fire (French Canadian) and Agent 007 GoldenEye (Italy).
A three-issue comic book adaptation of this film by Topps Comics was planned to be released, but for unknown reasons, this comic book tie-in was cancelled after the first issue had been published, which carried a January 1996 cover date.
Product placements, brand integrations, promotional tie-ins, and sponsorships for this movie include: Perrier mineral water; British Airways; IBM computers; Parker pens; Jack Daniel's Black Label Tennessee whiskey; Omega watches, James Bond wears an Omega Seamaster watch; BMW, the first part of their three-picture deal, featuring the BMW Z3 roadster convertible; Smirnoff vodka; Yves Saint-Laurent; Sharper Image; British Telecom and Nintendo's spin-off video game, GoldenEye 007 (1997), and later Electronic Arts's GoldenEye: Rogue Agent (2004).
The ending of the pre-credits sequence with Bond jumping after the airplane, features Jacques 'Zoo' Malnuit riding the motorcycle to the edge and jumping, and B.J. Worth diving after the plane, which was a working aircraft, with Worth adding, that part of the difficulty of the stunt, was the kerosene flying in his face.
The plot of this movie, of the villain using an electromagnetic pulse to destroy the computers of London, is the plot of the first episode of the short-lived animated show, James Bond, Jr. (1991), in which the villain, Slumlord, head of criminal organization, S.C.U.M., attempts to steal the electromagnetic pulse device from within Bond, Jr.'s Aston Martin DB5, in order to destroy the computers of London, and steal money from the city's banks.
Vehicles featured include: Xenia Onatopp's red Ferrari Spider F355 GTS sports car, with fake French rego plates; a surprise tractor; a blue BMW Z3 roadster convertible car; the return of the silver birch Aston Martin DB5, which had originally appeared in Goldfinger (1964) and Thunderball (1965); Alec Trevelyan's Train, a dark colored black and gray British Rail Class 20 No. D8188 locomotive, with additional Russian-looking armored plating; a T-55 tank adapted to look like a T-80BV Russian tank; Eurocopter 355 Twin Star, Robinson R-22 Beta, Bell 204 HUEY, and black Eurocopter PAH-2 Tiger Stealth helicopters; the French stealth ship La Fayette; a speedboat; a Mercedes-Benz 280E; the Manticore Yacht; a GAZ-3102 Volga passenger car; a Mera Cagiva 600 W 16 motorcycle; a Zaporozhec; several VAZ 2106 police cars and UAZ Army utility vehicles pursuing Bond's tank; a Pilatus PC-6/B2-H4 Turbo-Porter airplane; three Russian Mikoyan MiG-29 jet fighters; a Perrier truck; and a blue Moskvich car, and Cessna 172 airplane, both belonging to Jack Wade.
Jack Wade was written as a replacement for Felix Leiter. In Licence to Kill (1989), Felix Leiter was tortured and left for dead by Franz Sanchez, and it's most likely Leiter retired from the C.I.A. following his ordeal.
As M is about to send Bond on his GoldenEye mission, she tells him not to run off on a personal vendetta. M refers to the events in License to Kill (1989), in which, Bond went rogue and set out to get his revenge on drug lord Franz Sanchez, who tortured Felix Leiter and left him for dead, and murdering Leiter's bride Delia Churchill.
The small single-engine aircraft flown by James and Natalya (tail number N96816), is a 1984 Cessna 172P, with a Lycoming O-320 series, one hundred eighty horsepower engine. As of December 2011, it was privately registered to an individual in Caguas, Puerto Rico.
When Q demonstrates the pen grenade, 007 says "The writing's on the wall". This "foreshadowed" (not really though) the title of the theme song of the twenty-fourth James Bond film, Spectre (2015) starring Daniel Craig. The theme song of that film was "The Writing's On The Wall" by Sam Smith.
There was fan speculation that the main female antagonist, Xenia Onatopp, was named after Xena, the title protagonist of Xena: Warrior Princess (1995), who started off as an antagonist, before turning into a protagonist. However, that fan speculation was wrong. Production on the film commenced on January 16, 1995, and the film was released on November 13, 1995, and Xena: Warrior Princess (1995) premiered on American television on September 14, 1995, and also had been in production the same time as GoldenEye (1995), and there were no connections between the two characters.
The scene in Q's weapons lab, where he blows up the demo dummy with the pen grenade, Bond mentions the line, "the writing's on the wall", which was used for the title song, which Sam Smith sang for Spectre (2015).
The opening line of Tina Turner's song has the word "reflections", coincidental that reflections is the word from the book that inspired Ian Fleming to build the estate in Jamaica, and his operations during his spy years the same name, the book's name is "Reflections in a Golden Eye", starring Marlon Brando in a film adaptation, and the author is Carson McCullers. Also, the "Darth train" scene in the movie, is very similar to the movie Death Train (1993), also with Pierce Brosnan and Bond villain and Ian Fleming's cousin Sir Christopher Lee, and Sir Patrick Stewart, who plays Professor Xavier in the X-Men film franchise, alongside Famke Jahnsen and Halle Berry, who had been Bond girls with Pierce Brosnan's Bond. The plot of the movie revolves around a train, but in this movie, its reminiscent of the tank and train scene, There was a television movie with Charles Dance, called Goldeneye (1989), a biopic of Ian Fleming, which has five cast members who have appeared in James Bond films: Charles Dance (For Your Eyes Only (1981), Julian Fellowes (Tomorrow Never Dies (1997)), Steve Plytas (On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1969)); Christoph Waltz (Ernst Stravo Blofeld) (Spectre 2015), and Deborah Moore (Die Another Day (2002)). Moore is also the daughter of Sir Roger Moore, who played James Bond in several films.
Joe Don Baker was on an episode of Mission: Impossible (1966). A lot of actors and actresses from the Bond film franchise have also been on the show. The show became a film franchise starring Tom Cruise, and Mission: Impossible II (2000), used this movie as inspiration, since some of the scenes from that movie came straight out of this movie.
This was the second and last Bond film to be adapted as a novel by then-current Bond novelist John Gardner. The book is based upon the screenplay by Bruce Feirstein and Jeffrey Caine. It follows the movie storyline fairly closely, however, Gardner maintained a rather violent sequence prior to the opening bungee jump, in which Bond wipes out a group of Russian guards cut from the film, although the popular video game based on the film featured it also. There is also a deleted scene that alludes to the part where Bond cuts off a wire, so that the gate can open, so he can run through the dam. Differences from the film: The book features 006 and 007 receiving their briefing from the previous M, Admiral Sir Miles Messervy, before the mission to the chemical weapons factory. If this is counted as part of continuity, it would seem to confirm that the M, played by Robert Brown, is the same character played by Bernard Lee. Xenia drives a yellow Ferrari in Monte Carlo, not a red one. Chuck Farrel is an American, not a Canadian. He also holds the lower rank of Rear Admiral, rather than an Admiral, as in the film. Bill Tanner's title was revealed to have been changed by the new M from Chief-of-Staff to "Senior Analyst". When breaking into his nightclub, Valentin Zukovsky observes Bond on security cameras, and was able to anticipate his arrival. Dmitri Mishkin's first name is changed to Viktor. A scene was added between the escape from the train, and the trip to Cuba, where Bond and Natalya sleep overnight in a St. Petersburg motel, and are smuggled out of Russia the next day, by Jack Wade. This added more mythos of the character in James Bond literary and film aspects. Its also funny that Goldeneye was the birth of James Bond books, a chance for the Bond films to take a new direction, also Pierce Brosnan said to David Letterman, that his first film that he watched of Bond, was Goldfinger (1964), also Brosnan, when growing up in London, had the same acting teacher as Sir Sean Connery.
The game that is based on this movie, that was made for N64, and was a commercial success, inspired many other first person shooter games. Pierce Brosnan was also a part of The Lawnmower Man (1992), that made a pc game in 1993, and Cyberwars in 1994, that were also commercial successes.
Three genuine T-55s were used for the tank chase (the exception, is the scene where Bond chases Russian utility vehicles, the tank here, was a dummy built around a Saladin armored car). An extra hatch was cut in each, to provide Pierce Brosnan with a fake driving position (the true driver sat on the left). According to Stuntman Jim Dowdall, the tank skids were assisted by spreading several gallons of washing-up liquid on the road. He also states that there was one minor accident, when the tank ran over a camera worth two hundred thousand pounds.
Xenia was far less over the top in the original screenplay. She killed men by using her hands to induce heart attacks, instead of using her legs to strangle them. The latter method was mentioned in The Living Daylights (1987), when Q described a female K.G.B. assassin, who strangles men with her hands or thighs. Miss Moneypenny commented: "Why James, she's just your type!" The scene where Xenia kills Admiral Farrell with her thighs during sex, marks the first explicit sex scene in a Bond movie.
006, Alec Trevelyan (Sean Bean), was originally named Augustus Trevelyan, and written as a much older character, and a former mentor of Bond. The producers were keen to hire Sir Anthony Hopkins for the part, but he turned it down. Alan Rickman also turned down the role, stating that he was tired of playing villains. Finally, Sean Bean was cast after the part was re-written, but elements of the original idea survive in the finished version, though, instead of the character remembering the 1940s, his parents managed to escape execution, but committed suicide some time later, when Alec was a small child.
The film's main villain, Alec Trevelyen, shares many similarities to Harvey Dent/Two-Face, one of Batman's allies turned foe. Like Dent, Trevelyen was once allies with his nemesis before an accident irrevocably scarred one side of his face. As well, both men use the symbolic image of dual faces (in Trevelyen's case, the mythological two faced Roman God, Janus) to transform from agents of justice and authority, to the figure heads of major criminal organizations.
Swedish pop music group Ace of Base was originally slated to perform the title theme song. They recorded the song, written by the band's own Jonas Berggren, but it was pulled out of the project by their record label at the time. Ace of Base later re-wrote the lyrics to the song, renaming it "The Juvenile", and put it on their album, "Da Capo", released in Europe in late 2002. The song was released as a single off of that album in Germany, in December 2002. With the lyrics, the words 'The Juvenile" replaced "The Goldeneye", both having the same number of syllables, while the lyric "Tomorrow's foe is now a friend" clearly refers to Alec Trevelyan.
Trevelyan is a descendant of Lienz Cossacks, who was repatriated to Russia by the British after World War II, after assurances they would be treated as Allied POWs. This film was released on the 50th anniversary of this incident.