In the earliest scripts, there were two genies, one occupying the lamp, and one a ring, and Genie himself could grant an infinite number of wishes. In the first draft, Aladdin had three friends (Babkak, Omar, and Kassim), a magic ring and two genies. In the spin-off series Aladdin (1994), Omar was the name of one of the merchants. In Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996), Cassim's name was used for the King of Thieves. The stage musical added Omar, Babkak and Kassim to replace Abu as Aladdin's sidekicks.
The opening scene with the street merchant was completely unscripted. Robin Williams was brought into the sound stage and was asked to stand behind a table that had several objects on it and a bedsheet covering them all. The animators asked him to lift the sheet, and, without looking, take an object from the table and describe it in character. Much of the material in that recording session was not appropriate for a Disney film.
During script and storyboard development, the writers were already considering Robin Williams for the role of the Genie but had not approached him for the project. In order to convince Williams to do the role, Eric Goldberg animated the Genie doing several minutes of Williams's stand-up routines, including parts from his album "Reality... What A Concept," and screened it for him. Williams was so impressed that he signed almost immediately.
Originally, Jafar was more hot-tempered, while Iago was a cool, haughty British-type. The filmakers felt that having Jafar losing his temper too much made him less menacing, so the personalities of the two characters were switched around.
Robin Williams provided the voice for the Genie, at union scale rate (the lowest legal pay rate a studio can give an actor), on the provisos that his voice was not used for merchandising (i.e. toys and such), and that the Genie character not take up more than 25% of the space of a poster, ad, billboard, or trailer. When these wishes were not granted, he withdrew his support for Disney and the film. As a result, his name was not included in "The Art of Aladdin" book (it makes constant references to "the voice of the Genie"), and he was not available for the direct-to-video sequel The Return of Jafar (1994) or the Aladdin (1994) TV show (Dan Castellaneta filled in as the voice of the Genie for these productions). In an attempt to get back on good terms with Williams, Walt Disney CEO Michael Eisner apologized to him with a peace offering of an original Pablo Picasso painting. Still angered and feeling betrayed by Disney, Williams would not accept the gift. It was not until Disney chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg was fired and replaced by Joe Roth that Williams returned to Disney. Through Roth, a public apology was given. Promises to right wrongs were kept, and Williams was so touched that he came back as the Genie for the second direct-to-video sequel, Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996). Disney was so thrilled that they threw out the previously completed recording sessions with Castellaneta.
On August 11, 2014, Robin Williams committed suicide, and Disney honored him that week by airing Aladdin on their three children's channels (Disney Channel, Disney XD, and Disney Junior) across three days, twice on each channel. At the end of the movie, just before the credits, they put up an image that read, "In Memory of Robin Williams, who made us laugh." using animator Eric Goldberg's tribute to him (a.dilcdn.com/bl/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/08/genie_robin_williams_eric_goldberg_tribute.jpg) as a backdrop. Disney is considering keeping the image at the end of the film on future releases on home video, but is seeking consent from Williams' family.
While recording this movie, Robin Williams frequently received calls from Steven Spielberg, who at the time was working on the Holocaust film Schindler's List (1993). He would put him on speaker phone so he could tell jokes to the cast and crew to cheer them up. Some of the material that he used was material that he was using for this film.
In the preview screenings for the movie, audiences did not applaud after the big song numbers. The animators wanted applause and so somebody stuck the Genie with an "Applause" sign at the end of "Friend Like Me." The joke worked and the sign was kept for the movie.
When the film was first released on VHS in October 1993, it sold over 10.8 million copies in its first week and went on to sell over 25 million in total. This record stood for only two years when it was beaten by the release of The Lion King (1994).
Production designer Richard Vander Wende devised a simple color scheme for the film, inspired by its desert setting. Blue (water) stands for good, red (heat) for evil, and yellow (sand) is neutral. For example, the villainous Jafar is clad in blacks and reds, while the virtuous Jasmine wears blue. Another example is in the Cave of Wonders, where the lamp's chamber is blue, and the ruby that tempts Abu is bright red.
The Genie sings in "Friend Like Me" that "Scheherazade had her thousand tales." Scheherazade was, of course, the supposed author/teller of the stories from A Thousand and One Arabian Nights, which Aladdin (1992) comes from. While there were not actually a thousand tales, she did supposedly keep the sultan entertained for 1,001 nights.
Layout supervisor Rasoul Azadani traveled to his hometown of Ispahan, Iran in 1991 to get a feel for the look of the film. He took nearly two thousand pictures there. His name was supposed to be the incantation Jafar used when he approached the Cave of Wonders, but the idea was written out so as not to be such an in-joke. However, in The Return of Jafar (1994), the (here nameless) captain of the guards was eventually named in his honor.
The two men in the crowd that Aladdin pushes through are caricatures of two of the directors (John Musker and Ron Clements). The original plan was to use film critics Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert, but they could not get permission.
A section of the original lyric for the opening song "Arabian Nights" was altered after the movie's theatrical release. Arab-American groups claimed that it was racist, so the line was changed. Listening closely, a distinct vocal change can be heard when the singer gets to "It's barbaric, but hey, it's home!" The lyrics in the film's opening song, "Arabian Nights," were originally, "Oh, I come from a land From a faraway place Where the caravan camels roam. Where they cut off your ear If they don't like your face It's barbaric, but hey, it's home." Obviously, the concept of cutting off hands was what gave offense. Although the film had already been released, Disney agreed to change it on the video release and any subsequent theatrical releases, and so the new lines, "Where it's flat and immense, and the heat is intense," replaced the two offensive lines.
On what came to be known among the animators as Black Friday, then Disney head Jeffrey Katzenberg told the team to scrap virtually everything they had been working on for months and start all over again, and he also refused to move the film's release date. Directors John Musker and Ron Clements were able to completely turn around the film's new plot and screenplay in just eight days.
Jasmine was originally supposed to be a bit more active. At one point, she was supposed to confront the Sultan and angrily declare, "We have to talk," but the animators nixed it because it would have meant designing an entirely new room for that talk, so they fell back on showing Jasmine crying instead (which made them cringe). Also, when Jasmine was trapped in the hourglass, she was supposed to use the jewel in her headpiece to cut herself free, but this was changed to a last-minute rescue by Aladdin. Jasmine was also going to be a spoiled brat who wanted to marry the richest of all the princes, only becoming a sweet girl who learns humility after falling in love with Aladdin. A song was even written for the spoiled version of Jasmine, titled "Call Me a Princess." The production team dropped this personality because they did not think audiences would like her very much. Also, when Jafar wished to rule Agrabah, the original idea was for time to be altered, so everything was as if he had always been the sultan, everyone's memories had been altered, and Aladdin, Abu, and the Carpet were only unchanged because the Carpet wrapped around them and protected them from the magic wave. This idea was deemed way too confusing, and it was scrapped as well.
The idea of adapting the Aladdin story as a Disney animated musical was first proposed by Howard Ashman in 1988, at the time that he and Alan Menken were still working on The Little Mermaid (1989) and before work had begun on Beauty and the Beast (1991). Ashman wrote an initial treatment for the project and collaborated on six songs with Menken. When John Musker and Ron Clements finished directing duties on The Little Mermaid (1989), they turned their attention to writing a first draft of this film's script, and eventually became its directors.
Aladdin was originally fully aware that Jasmine was the princess when he first met her. It was changed because the production team believed that it implied Aladdin fell in love with her because of her money and power, not because he genuinely cared about her.
When Iago pulls a picture of him and Jafar out of his cage, the line, "And, uh, how about this picture? I don't know, I think I'm making a weird face in it," was ad-libbed by Gilbert Gottfried, and Robin Williams could not stop laughing when he heard it.
This was the second Disney animated feature to use fully-rendered and textured 3-D CGI-moving backgrounds in combination with the traditionally animated character animation, a technique that was expanded upon in the Disney short Off His Rockers (1992) and previously in Beauty and the Beast (1991). This led to the creation of "Deep Canvas," a brand-new technique created by Disney seven years later for use in Tarzan (1999), which allows 2-D hand-drawn characters to exist seamlessly in a fully 3-D environment.
Bill Plympton turned down a seven-figure offer to work on this film, because any ideas and concepts he developed for his other projects while under contract with Disney would become their intellectual property.
Howard Ashman and Alan Menken originally conceived the opening song "Arabian Nights" to be recurrent throughout the film, acting as narration. This idea was dropped when the visuals and storytelling proved strong enough in their own right.
In early visual development, Aladdin resembled Michael J. Fox. As the film developed, Jeffrey Katzenberg did not think Aladdin had enough appeal to women, so he asked that Aladdin be beefed up a bit to resemble Tom Cruise.
Originally, Aladdin was supposed to use his second wish in order to get through an obstacle course designed to test Jasmine's suitors. The production team eagerly approached the idea of scripting and animating a fabulously elaborate action sequence but could not get the idea to work in practice, and ended up going for the much simpler solution of Aladdin being jumped by guards and then having to use the second wish to save his life.
During his first song, the Genie mentions Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves. This is, of course, another story from the Arabian Nights, and was used as the basis for the direct-to-video sequel, Aladdin and the King of Thieves (1996).
Part of the plot revolves around Jafar seeking Aladdin as he is the only one able to enter the Cave of Wonders and retrieve a valuable item inside; Aladdin finds the lamp and narrowly avoids dying inside the cave. This resembles the plot in an earlier Disney classic, The Rescuers (1977), in which Madame Medusa uses an orphan girl small enough to fit through the opening of a dangerous pirate's cave to retrieve the Devil's Eye diamond inside. Penny and her rescuers exit the cave with the jewel after they narrowly avoid drowning. Sometime after clutching their sought-out treasures, Madame Medusa and Jafar both deliver the exact same line: "It's mine. It's all mine!"
After proving his abilities to Aladdin by getting them out of a collapsed cave, Genie calls Aladdin "Mr. Doubting Mustafa". In the classic tellings of the Aladdin story, Mustafa was the name of Aladdin's late father.
Though loosely based on the original short story from Arabian Nights, many plot elements are created just for the film, such as Jafar's desire for Jasmine, framing Aladdin for a crime and having him imprisoned, Aladdin meeting another prisoner (actually Jafar) who helps break him out of prison and tells him of a hidden treasure, Aladdin using the treasure (the lamp) to falsely portray himself as a prince, and to take revenge on Jafar. These plot elements are all quite similar to the plot of Alexandre Dumas's novel The Count of Monte Cristo. Appropriately, the novel itself makes reference to the Arabian Nights several times, like when the treasure of Monte Cristo is compared to that of Ali Baba, the cave in which it is hidden is compared to the one in Aladdin, and the protagonist, Edmond Dantes, calls himself Sinbad the Sailor, at one point.
Contrary to popular belief, Gilbert Gottfried and Robin Williams recorded their parts separately and did not once bump into each other during the film's production. However, the two had performed stand-up comedy together with Gottfried extolling Williams' generosity and support in an article for CNN following his passing.
In the Cave of Wonders, there was supposed to have been an extended version of the lamp-grabbing scene. In it, Aladdin would have approached the lamp and, before he would grab it, would look up and see images of others, including Gazeem from the beginning, who attempted to take the lamp and were killed. As it turned out, the lamp he was going for was a fake and, by stepping away from it, would have been granted access to the real one.
When Howard Ashman began work on the movie, he developed the story as a fast-paced comic adventure about a young boy trying to prove his worth to his parents. But, in 1991, Ashman died, and the story problems stalled the movie. So, the plot was reworked to be about a teenager, Aladdin, seeking self-respect instead of the approval of others.
Robin Williams initially refused to take the role of the Genie since it was a Disney movie, and he did not want the studio profiting by selling toys and novelty items based on the movie. He accepted the role with certain conditions: "I'm doing it basically because I want to be part of this animation tradition. I want something for my children. One deal is, I just don't want to sell anything - as in Burger King, as in toys, as in stuff."
The Islamic cultural setting of the film is directly referenced several times throughout the film. For instance: the Sultan yells "Praise Allah!" when he realizes that Jasmine wants to marry Prince Ali/Aladdin; the Sultan says "Allah forbid you have any daughters!" when he is frustrated with Jasmine; and Gazeem at the beginning says "By Allah!" when he sees The Cave of Wonders. Although it isn't stated, the mentions of Allah imply that the religion in Aragabah is Islam, since that is the way Muslims address God.
Aladdin's monkey Abu was named after the ancient Egyptian city of Abu. This translates to elephant, because the city was known for it's trade in ivory. Therefore it is not surprising that when enchanted, Abu shifts shape into an elephant.
Eight other songs were written for the film but were later cut. Some of the original songs before the story was rewritten and half of the characters were cut: "Proud of Your Boy" (supposed to be sung by Aladdin to his mother - later removed from the story - while she was sleeping); "Call Me a Princess"; "Babkak, Omar, Aladdin, Kassim"; "Humiliate the Boy" (sung by Jafar, cut because it was considered too cruel for the film); "High Adventure"; "Count on Me" (which was something Aladdin sang to his friends and family, which was replaced by "A Whole New World"). "Proud of Your Boy", "Babkak, Omar, Aladdin, Kassim" and "High Adventure" were later reinstated in the stage musical version.
During the mid-1990s, a rumor began that alleged that during the balcony scene, Aladdin says, "Good teenagers, take off your clothes" when he encounters Rajah. This was one of many accusations by moral groups during that period which tried to prove that Disney was subliminally promoting sexual promiscuity in its films. The film's directors insists that Aladdin is actually saying, "Nice kitty, take off and go, go on." One Disney animator, Tom Sito, backed up this statement by stating that the people responsible for helming the scene are deeply religious and would never deliberately add such racy humor. All subsequent copies of the film cut the line entirely to avoid any further controversy.
Aladdin throws an apple to Jasmine several times throughout the movie, including when they fly over Greece on the magic carpet ride. In ancient Greece, throwing an apple to a woman is considered a marriage proposal.
When Genie outfits Aladdin, the screen behind them has two pictures on it, one with Genie in a shirt, tie and eye-patch. This is a reference to a very famous ad campaign by David Ogilvy known as "The Man In The Hathaway Shirt".
During and after A Whole New World, Greece and China are the two countries seen in the film. This is foreshadowing, as Hercules (1997) and Mulan (1998), released several years later, are set in those two countries, respectively, although the Pastoral Symphony in Fantasia (1940) was also set in Greece. Ironically, the tale of Aladdin was originally set in China, not in the Middle East.
As of 2015, this and Oliver & Company (1988) are the only theatrically released Disney animated feature where Frank Welker has a credited speaking role (the Cave of Wonders) in this film, as opposed to just providing vocal effects for animal characters.
According to the film's dubbing editor, who oversaw the production of all foreign dubs, Hungarian voice actor Károly Kassai was the ideal voice for the role of Iago, surpassing even his original actor, Gilbert Gottfried. Kassai sounded exactly how they had imagined Iago would talk, but they couldn't find anyone in the United States with such a voice.
As soon as genie is released from his tasks by aladdin's final wish, he tells aladdin to wish for "the nile", aladdin makes this request and genie replies "no way". Phonetically "the nile" sounds like "denial", so one could argue that genie did make the wish come true.
Dubbed versions would sometimes go with different voice choices for the Genie's many characters, particularly the generic ones. For example, the voice of generic a sports commentator would resemble a person known only locally to that particular country, and so on.
As they try to recover Genie's lamp, Jasmine, Abu, and even the carpet technically become Genie's masters at least for a second, as they did hold the lamp (however, never summoned Genie). Just as that, Aladdin also was Jafar's master a few moments, as he held the lamp before Genie sent it away.
In the song, "Friend Like Me," the Genie sings, "Have some of column A, try all of column B." This line is very similar to a quote from The Oscar (1966), with the quote being, "Take one from column A and two from column B." Both are references to dinner specials in mid-20th century Chinese restaurants, where you could select your entree and side dishes from the two columns on the menu.
The trivia items below may give away important plot points.
Originally, the peddler who introduces the movie would be revealed to be the Genie at the end, hence the fact that Robin Williams voiced them both. There are similarities in the design of the two, especially the eyebrows, the beard, and the four-fingered hands (all the other human characters have five fingers). The revelation scene was even animated in an early stage, but due to some story and editing changes, it did not make the finished movie. Directors Ron Clements and John Musker, however, have since confirmed that Genie and the peddler are one and the same person.
When Aladdin realizes that he might become the next sultan he worries and the Genie tries to cheer him up by saying, "Aladdin, you've just won the heart of the princess! What are you going to do next?", setting him up for the popular Disney advertising campaign line, "I'm going to Disney World!" Aladdin does not say this, but we hear the Disney theme music in the background. Similarly, when the Genie gets ready to leave at the end of the film, he is wearing a Disney souvenir Goofy hat.
Andreas Deja based Jafar on Marc Davis's design for Maleficent in Sleeping Beauty (1959). The two villains share more than just looks: both carry a staff which they use to execute evil magic; both have bird henchman (Maleficent's is a raven, Jafar's a parrot), and both turn themselves into gigantic reptiles in their respective films' climactic battles - Maleficent as a dragon, Jafar as a snake. UltimateDisney.com featured Maleficent and Jafar in their Top Villain Countdown at #1 and #2, respectively.
HIDDEN MICKEY: When Aladdin puts Jafar back into the lamp, the spell on the other characters is broken. Start watching when the cub Rajah jumps into the Sultan's arms. When Rajah hits his arms and starts to grow back into a tiger, just before he becomes normal, his face appears as Mickey Mouse for one frame.
During Aladdin and Abu escape attempt the cave of wonders on carpet and a wave of lava flows up at them. When they reach the treasure room, the wave for a few seconds briefly turns into two hands reaching out to grab them.