When outside, Lt. Col. Caldwell does not render salute to the Medal of Honor recipient. It is customary in any instances to render salute and very disrespectful not to render, no matter how much you know the person.
In the title sequence you see a Nimitz classes aircraft carrier putting to sea going under the Golden Gate Bridge, this shot being taken from the north side of the bridge. In the next cut you see a Nimitz classes aircraft carrier putting into San Fransisco, this can be deduced as the shot has the Presidio in the foreground, which is at the southern end of the Golden Gate Bridge, and the ship is moving left to right
When Austin is chasing Lawrence through China Town, a saw-horse road barrier falls across his path - pulled over by a length of fishing wire clearly visible being pulled by crew to the right out of shot.
Lt. Col. Alan Caldwell wears a Combat Infantryman Badge (CIB) with a single star on his Class A uniform. In the movie, it is made clear that Caldwell's first combat duty was in Vietnam; only a combat veteran of the Korean War and Vietnam would earn the right to wear a CIB with a single star in place of a CIB minus the star. However, it is possible that Caldwell earned a second CIB award if he participated in the invasion of Grenada in 1982 (the movie was made in 1988), so this is not necessarily an error.
The diamonds are smuggled in bottles of water supposedly because they are invisible when immersed in water. Not true. The diamond index of refraction is very different from that of water. They would easily be seen. If the liquid had been mineral oil, which has a much closer index of refraction to diamonds, then the gems would have been hidden somewhat.
When Col Caldwell is shooting the guy with the shotgun in the water warehouse, he shoots several times and then a "click" is heard indicating he is out of bullets. When the Colt Model M1911A1 .45 pistol fires the last round in the magazine, the slide locks back (open), so there is no empty click - the .45 Caldwell is holding does not have the slide locked back, so he hadn't fired the last round in the pistol.
Colonel Caldwell is shown wearing an MP brassard (arm band) while searching the storage closet and at a few other times. However, commissioned officers in the U.S. Army Military Police Corps do not wear MP brassards, they are worn only by enlisted personnel. Note to editors--brassard is correctly spelled. It is a military term.
The medals on Sean Connery's two different dress uniforms are completely different. The highest medal on his "Class A" uniform is a Bronze Star. The highest medal on his "Mess Dress" uniform is a Legion of Merit.
While Colonel Caldwell could have been awarded two CIB badges for service in Vietnam and Grenada, the more interesting possible goof is whether he could have been awarded the badges as an MP officer. Only infantry personnel can receive the CIB award. So Caldwell would have to have been an infantry officer in Vietnam and Grenada to receive the CIB and transferred to the Military Police later in his career, possible but unlikely.