Witness (1985) Poster



The film's script has become a frequent model for budding screenwriters, often used to display clear structure in a screenplay.
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Although he once again plays a heroic man with a gun, Witness (1985) was the first starring role that broke Harrison Ford away from the science fiction and fantasy genres that made him famous, and gave him his first and only Academy Award nomination for Best Actor.
In preparation for her role, Kelly McGillis lived with an actual Amish widow and her seven children for a while before filming began to get the speech cadence down and to observe the daily life of an Amish widowed mother.
Rachel tells Book "You know carpentry." He replies "A bit..." Harrison Ford was a carpenter before he became famous as an actor.
The Amish were critical of the film. They felt their portrayal was not accurate. The National Committee For Amish Religious Freedom called for a boycott on the movie, citing fears that these communities were "overrun by tourists" because of the popularity of the film. They worried that "the crowding, souvenir-hunting, photography, and trespassing on Amish properties would increase as a result." When the film was finished, the Governor of Pennsylvania promised not to promote the Amish film communities as future film sites.
Sylvester Stallone was an early choice for the role of John Book. When he turned down the role, he said it was one of the worst decisions of his career.
The "evening serenade" scene in the barn, in which Book and Rachel dance, was actually filmed during the day, in the heat of the summer. The barn was blacked out and sealed, and that's why both Harrison Ford and Kelly McGillis perspire so much in that scene. The kerosene lantern they had added even more heat.
When shooting the murder in the men's room scene, Peter Weir claimed it was the most violent scene he'd ever filmed. Even today, he still thinks it was perhaps too violent. But he wanted to have an outrage over the violence that occurred before the eyes of an innocent Amish boy.
As realistic as the actors playing background roles as Amish people are, no actual Amish were in the film because they do not (as is correctly stated in the film itself) like to have their pictures taken. They were intensely interested in the filming, though, and many Amish people were often out of camera range politely watching the filming.
This film was released in early 1985. It was the number two film at the box-office behind the enormous hit Beverly Hills Cop (1984). Even though this film made money, a Paramount executive said that if they had known "Cop" was going to be such a big hit, they would not have released this film so soon after it.
The studios weren't keen on the production initially, because they thought it was too rural. Even when Harrison Ford agreed to star in it, despite the signing of a major name, they still weren't interested in it.
The original screenplay focused mainly on Rachel, but Director Peter Weir asked Screenwriters William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace to re-write it, to focus on the comparison of pacifism and violence, as seen through the eyes of John Book.
The song for the "serenade" scene, "Wonderful World" by Sam Cooke, was selected by Harrison Ford himself. Peter Weir said that since Ford had to sing and dance to it, he should be able to choose which song he wanted to use for that scene. However, the version of the song heard in the film, is not Sam Cooke's original, but performed by Cooke sound-alike Greg Chapman.
The final scene between John and Rachel was originally written with ten pages of dialogue. But Harrison Ford became ill, and it had to be thrown out.
Harrison Ford joined the Philadelphia Police Department in preparation for the movie. He even joined them on numerous raids.
The climax at the final scene was inspired in part by High Noon (1952), in which an outnumbered man takes out his foes one by one, using his wits and ingenuity.
The Amish speak German in the film, even though it's seldom spoken by the community in real-life.
Since the Amish community declined to be in the film, a lot of the extras were played by Mennonites.
An actual barn was built as a result of the shooting of the barn-raising scene, but it was torn-down shortly afterwards.
Viggo Mortensen's feature film debut. He was offered the part in the film on the same day that he was offered to play a role in "Henry V" in Shakespeare in the Park in New York City.
The story for Witness was originally a plot outline for the television series Gunsmoke (1955). William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace had both been writers on Gunsmoke, and their original story had Marshall Dillon traveling to an Amish farm looking for a witness to a murder.
Harrison Ford was nominated for Best Actor, his one and only Oscar nomination.
In the scene where Book sits down to an early morning breakfast with the Lapps, he quips, "Honey, that's great coffee," shocking Rachel by seeming to refer to her as "honey". He then explains that this was a joke, from some commercial. Among the personal quotes for Harrison Ford appears the basis for this line when the actor was commenting on the early days of his career: "I started by chasing a Folger's commercial. But I just somehow couldn't manage to say, 'Honey, that's a great cup of coffee'".
When Producer Edward S. Feldman, who had a first-look development deal with 20th Century Fox, first received the script, it ran to one hundred eighty-two pages, which is the equivalent of three hours screentime. Feldman was really enthusiastic about the screenplay, even though he felt that there was too much concentration on the Amish, and their traditions. He offered William Kelley and Earl W. Wallace twenty-five thousand dollars for a one-year option, and a re-write, plus an additional two hundred fifty thousand dollars, if the film ever got made. Kelley and Wallace submitted their revised screenplay within six weeks, and Feldman promptly submitted it to Fox and its studio head, Joe Wizan, who immediately rejected the script with the statement that Fox didn't do "rural movies".
Kelly McGillis was working in a Greenwich Village coffee house when she got the part. Harrison Ford and Peter Weir went there to see her, and offer her the role.
The script ran the rounds of all the major studios, who all turned it down, until Paramount Pictures finally expressed some interest.
Harrison Ford and Peter Weir developed such a good working relationship, that Ford immediately signed on to star in Weir's next project The Mosquito Coast (1986).
The statue that Samuel examines in the train station is a real monument in Philadelphia's 30th Street Station. It is a memorial to the men and women of the Pennsylvania Railroad who died during World War II. Its official title is "Angel of the Resurrection", and it is a depiction of the Archangel Michael lifting a deceased soldier from the battlefield. Walker Hancock was the sculptor; it was dedicated in August 1952, and as of June 2012, still stands on the east side of the station's main concourse.
The first film Peter Weir made outside of his native Australia.
Alexander Godunov's English language debut.
Jack Nicholson was offered the role of John Book. While he liked the script, there wasn't a director he liked attached at that point, so he passed on it.
This didn't top the U.S. box-office Top 10 until its fifth week of release.
Opening film at the 1985 Cannes Film Festival.
One of the few films to focus on Amish culture.
The script's original title was "Called Home", which is the Amish term for death. Danny Glover, who appears in this movie, would later use this phrase as the President of the United States in 2012 (2009).
Peter Weir didn't know anything about the Amish when he signed on to direct. He said making the movie was "learning as you go."
Shot on the Paul Krantz farm in Strasburg, Pennsylvania.
Edward S. Feldman's first choice for director was Peter Weir from the very start. Weir, however, turned it down, because he was involved in pre-production on The Mosquito Coast (1986). Feldman then went to John Badham, who dismissed it as "just another cop movie". After being turned down by various other directors, Feldman was delighted when Weir suddenly became available again, as his production of The Mosquito Coast (1986) had been delayed, due to finance difficulties. Weir would ultimately make The Mosquito Coast (1986) with Harrison Ford.
Once Peter Weir committed to the project, filming had to begin immediately, because a Directors Guild of America strike was looming on the horizon (though it never actually happened).
The original title was "Home to Witness". It was changed at the behest of Paramount's marketing department, who felt the original title posed too much of a promotional challenge.
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An advertiser wanted to capture the look of this film for a television commercial for his product. When he interviewed Directors of Photography, he told them he wanted the look of this film. One of the people interviewed was John Seale, the Director of Photography for this film. Ironically, Seale did not get the job.
Because the movie was filmed so close to Amish country, some felt the production was a disruption.
David Cronenberg was originally asked to direct.
John Book's relationship with Samuel mirrored Harrison Ford's relationship with his own children.
The theatrical trailer features a scene not used in the film. In it, Book tells Schaeffer that there was a witness while sitting in a police car.
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Angus MacInnes also appeared with Harrison Ford in Force 10 from Navarone (1978).
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The water wheel in the film was only a studio prop, and dismantled after filming was finished.
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Harrison Ford starred with Robert Earl Jones' (The Custodian) son, James Earl Jones, in the Star Wars trilogy (1977-1983). They share one scene in this film - while Han Solo and Darth Vader share only two scenes in the entire Star Wars trilogy (both scenes in Cloud City in Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back (1980)).
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Alexander Godunov later played the role of "Amish Dad" in North (1994).
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It's quite some time before Lukas Haas says a word of dialogue. Angus MacInnes has only four lines in the entire film (three of them spoken off-screen), all within the first third of the film.
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Dedicated to Tom Scott.
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The bar where Book runs in and grabs an assumed suspect , was a real bar in the 1200 block of South Street. It closed a year later, was torn down, and was an empty lot for years.
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In the shooting script, Danny Glover's character is named "McElroy".
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Lynne Littman was originally in line to direct.
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Mel Gibson was considered to play John Book.
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Included among the American Film Institute's 1998 list of the 400 movies nominated for the Top 100 Greatest American Movies.
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The trivia item below may give away important plot points.

This is the second film in which Harrison Ford's love interest is named Rachel, the first being Blade Runner (1982) (although in that film it is spelled Rachael).
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