Andrew Robinson created a backstory for Scorpio which involved him being drafted into the Vietnam War, and seeing unspeakable horrors. When he returned home to the United States, he found himself a figure of hate, and his war experiences, combined with the people's treatment of soldiers, caused him to go insane.
As is well known, Clint Eastwood directed the scene with the suicide jumper (Bill Couch). However, it is often claimed he directed the scene only because Don Siegel was ill. This is inaccurate. Siegel was indeed ill, and wasn't on the set, but Eastwood had always been scheduled to direct that scene, due to the difficult logistics of getting the actors, director, camera-man and sound-man all together on the top of a small ledge. In the shooting schedule, 6 nights had been set aside for the shooting of the scene. Eastwood told the studio he could shoot it in two nights. In the end, he shot the entire scene in one night.
In 1972, a copycat crime took place in the state of Victoria in Australia, in which two men kidnapped a teacher and six pupils at gunpoint and demanded a $1 million ransom. The state government agreed to pay but the children managed to escape and the kidnappers were subsequently jailed. One of them was called Eastwood.
Serial killer Scorpio was loosely based on the Zodiac killer, who used to taunt police and media with notes about his crimes, in one of which he threatened to hijack a school bus full of children. The role of Harry Callahan was loosely based on real life detective David Toschi who was the chief investigator in the Zodiac case.
After Clint Eastwood and Don Siegel came on board the project, they hired writer Dean Riesner to work on the script. In his first rewrite, the bank robbery scene ends with Harry not pointing the gun at the robber, but placing it against his own temple. He pulls the trigger, laughs and then walks away. Eastwood and Siegel both felt this was too extreme, even for Harry Callahan.
The movie's most famous line is often misquoted. A lot of people mistakenly quote the line as "Do you feel lucky, punk?", while the actual line is "You've got to ask yourself one question: 'Do I feel lucky?' Well, do ya, punk?"
Unlike most other municipal police organizations, the San Francisco Police Department calls their detectives "Inspectors." Hence the title character's official rank and name is 'Police Inspector Harry Callahan,' and not 'Detective Harry Callahan'. This was especially confusing for audiences in countries using the British police rank system where 'Inspector' was a rank equivalent to a US lieutenant.
In real life, Andrew Robinson is a pacifist who despises guns. In the early days of principal photography, Robinson would flinch violently every time he fired. Director Don Siegel was forced to shut down production for a time and sent Robinson to a school to learn to fire a gun convincingly. However, he still blinks noticeably when he shoots. Robinson was also squeamish about filming the scene where he verbally and physically abuses several schoolchildren, and the scene where he racially insults the man he pays to beat him up (Raymond Johnson).
When Clint Eastwood approached Don Siegel to offer him the directing job, Eastwood gave Siegel four drafts of the script, one of which was written by Terrence Malick. In Malick's script, he had altered Scorpio from being a mindless psychopath killing only because he likes it, to being a vigilante who killed wealthy criminals who had escaped justice. Siegel didn't like Malick's script, but Eastwood did, and Malick's ideas formed the basis for the sequel, Magnum Force (1973).
Scorpio wears a belt with a peace symbol buckle throughout the film. According to director Don Siegel, "It reminds us that no matter how vicious a person is, when he looks in the mirror he is still blind to what he truly is".
When Harry finally meets Scorpio in Mount Davidson Park, Scorpio orders him to show his gun with his left hand. Harry pulls it from his holster and Scorpio ad-libs the line, "My, that's a big one!" This line caused the crew to crack up and the scene had to be re-shot, but the line stayed
Clint Eastwood agreed to star in the film only on the proviso that Don Siegel direct. Siegel was under contract to Universal at the time, and Eastwood personally went to the studio heads to ask them to 'loan' Siegel to Warner. Eastwood has always maintained in interviews that the reason he took the role was because he felt the issue of victims' rights was being ignored in the political arena at the time, and he thought the film could be a good way to bring it more to the fore (which it did).
Scorpio's real name is never revealed through out the entire movie, and in the ending credits he is simply listed as "killer". However after the film's release, a novelization gave his real name as Charles Davis.
All the outdoor scenes were actually filmed in San Francisco except for the bank robbery which Dirty Harry foils, when he first utters his immortal phrase, "'Do I feel lucky?' Well, do ya, punk?" This scene was shot on a set.
In the bank robbery scene, the movie theater across the street lists Play Misty for Me (1971), a movie Eastwood also starred in, and the first feature film directed by him, released earlier in 1971, on its marquee.
When Don Siegel was hired as director, he was considering Audie Murphy for the role of Scorpio. Siegel thought it would be a nice irony to have a genuine war hero and heroic screen icon known for playing clean-cut characters playing a psychopathic killer. Siegel offered Murphy the role, but Murphy died in a plane crash on 28 May 1971 prior to making his final decision. Three days before Clint Eastwood's own birthday.
The original draft of the script by Harry Julian Fink and Rita M. Fink was set in New York City. When Clint Eastwood and Don Siegel became involved in the project, they initially planned to relocate the film to Seattle, Washington before ultimately deciding on San Francisco.
When Universal allowed its option on the film and characters to lapse, Warner Bros. purchased the rights with a view to cast Frank Sinatra. Sinatra was interested, however he had broken his wrist during the filming of The Manchurian Candidate (1962) eight years previously, and during contract negotiations, he found the large handgun too unwieldy. Additionally, his father had recently passed away, and Sinatra decided he wanted to do some lighter material. After Sinatra dropped out, Warner Bros. considered Marlon Brando for the role, but never officially approached him. Next, they offered it to Steve McQueen and then Paul Newman, both of whom turned it down (McQueen didn't want to do another cop movie after Bullitt (1968) and Newman felt the film was too right-wing). Newman however suggested Clint Eastwood as a possible star.
First feature film portraying the San Francisco Police Department's Bureau of Inspectors' Homicide Detail; the success of the film led to the development of the TV drama The Streets of San Francisco (1972).
The idea of a car chase was dropped as another cop thriller set in San Francisco - Bullitt (1968) - had already set the bar for that. The car chase was used in the subsequent Dirty Harry sequels Magnum Force (1973), Sudden Impact (1983), and The Dead Pool (1988).
According to the original script, the phrase that Dirty Harry quotes during both the bank robbery and his final confrontation with Scorpio was not the actual quote for the movie, the actual quote in the script was, "Well? Was it five or was it six? Regulations say five...hammer down on an empty...only not all of us go by the book. What you have to do is think about it. I mean, this is a .44 Magnum and it'll turn your head into hash. Now, do you think I fired five or six? And if five, do I keep a live one under the hammer? It's all up to you. Are you feeling lucky, punk?"
A close-up shot was planned for Debralee Scott's appearance, in which she played the nude corpse of Ann Mary Deacon. She felt so cold in the dawn chill that she shivered uncontrollably. After several failed takes, her scene was filmed as a long shot.
The 44 Magnum used in the film is now owned by Prop Master and weapons specialist Bill Davis who bought it off the production company years before the film became popular. The revolver is still in use as part of his catalog.
In a 2009 poll for MTV News, the character of Harry Callahan was voted the "Greatest Movie Badass of All-Time." Dirty Harry beat other movie icons like Rambo, Ellen Ripley and John McClane to the top spot.
Both Arnold Schwarzenegger and Robert Urich (now deceased) cited the character of Harry Callahan as being one of the biggest influences on their careers. Schwarzenegger said watching Dirty Harry inspired him to seek out action roles with wisecracking heroes who were a law unto themselves. Urich based his portrayal of Dan Tanna in the TV show Vega$ (1978) on Clint Eastwood's performance in Dirty Harry, especially his tendency never to get angry or raise his voice. According to Urich, when shooting the pilot, he was very consciously doing an impression of Eastwood having worked with him in Magnum Force (1973).
When composer Lalo Schifrin was scoring the film, he told director Don Siegel that he wanted to use female vocals for the scenes with the Scorpio killer in them. When Siegel asked him why, Schifrin replied that he believed Scorpio was conflicted about what he was doing as he wore a peace symbol belt buckle yet he was a murderer. Schifrin believed that Scorpio heard voices in his head and the female vocals would represent that. (This particular score was later sampled by rap group NWA in 1991 for the rap song 'Approach to Danger'.)
This film makes references to the then recent criminal court trials of Escobedo v. Illinois and Miranda v. Arizona. Escobedo v Illinois was a 1964 case which ruled that any statements made by a suspect without the presence of legal counsel were inadmissible as evidence. Miranda v Arizona was a 1966 case which ruled that a suspect had to be informed of his rights prior to interrogation. If he was not informed of his rights, the subsequent interrogation was deemed null and void.
Dirty Harry's gun is supposedly a Smith & Wesson Model 29 revolver, chambered for a .44 Magnum cartridge. In the film, the gun is shown as being capable of sending assailants flying through the air, even when shot from a distance, however, in reality the gun does not produce such dramatic results. Additionally, the .44 Magnum round is not considered to be a practical caliber for urban police force use due to recoil (which makes target re-acquisition difficult) and over-penetration issues, which greatly increases the likelihood of the bullet going through its target and injuring bystanders. The actual gun used on set by Clint Eastwood was in fact a Smith & Wesson Model 29. It is a common misconception that a Model 29 could not be located and a Model 57, chambered in .41 Magnum, was used instead. Clint Eastwood contacted Bob Sauer, representative for Smith and Wesson, to acquire the pistol. The Model 29 had been in production up until the late nineties, but a number of pistols were assembled from parts at the factory and provided to the crew. Eastwood took one to a firing range to familiarize himself with the Model 29.
Uncredited screenwriter John Milius wrote his draft of the film inspired by Akira Kurosawa's studies in lone-gun detectives, while director Don Siegel tackled the material from the viewpoint of bigotry.
The gun Scorpio steals from the liquor store owner is a 9mm Walther P38. During his rooftop shootout, he uses a German MP40 sub-machine gun. The sniper rifle he uses is a 7.7mm Japanese Arisaka Type 02 Paratrooper Takedown rifle (rechambered in .30-06 Springfield) fitted with a suppressor. This particular rifle was sporterized; all of the Scorpio Killer's weapons were WWII-era infantry weapons used by the Axis forces. Harry's guns, a Smith and Wesson revolver and a Winchester rifle are by contrast wholly American.
The opening sniper scenes were shot from atop San Francisco's Bank of America Building located at 555 California Street. The sniper's target is a girl swimming in the pool on the roof of the then Holiday Inn Chinatown, located at 750 Kearny Street, and since about 1995, renamed Hilton San Francisco Financial District. 750 Kearny Street is located on a straight line five blocks north (about 1600-1700 feet) of BoA Tower. Since the BoA Tower is considerably taller than the hotel, the vantage point is looking down at the rooftop pool at the hotel, and would be a relatively easy shot for a trained marksman. Since the Hilton takeover of the hotel, the pool is no longer open/operable.
In the opening scene, the camera pans over Market Street, and a bulldozer can be seen driving up Powell Street. This was due to the construction of the Powell Street BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit) station. Construction continued all through the film's shooting.
The movie's line "You've got to ask yourself one question: 'Do I feel lucky?' Well, do ya, punk?" was voted as the #51 movie quote by the American Film Institute (out of 100). But if you can read lips, or know someone on the original sound crew (like me) you can see that Eastwood says "buck" not "punk". "Punk" was looped in in post because the term "buck" is an offensive term for a male African American. So, the John Milius script really made Harry very Dirty. Too dirty for 1971 Warner Bros.
Clint Eastwood and Don Siegel locked horns over the end sequence where Harry Callahan throws his badge away. Siegel always saw Callahan as a borderline vigilante but Eastwood already had a sequel in mind and didn't want the character to quit, so refused to show up to work for most of the day to film it. Eventually, Eastwood caved in and agreed to it.
When Harry walks into the hot dog joint before the robbery shootout scene, there's a movie marquee to the right of the screen as Harry walks into the restaurant. The movie that's showing is Play Misty for Me (1971), another Clint Eastwood movie that came out the same year.
The sniper calls himself "Scorpio" which is the Zodiac sign for people born between October 24th and November 22nd. November 22nd 1963 is the date that President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by a sniper in Dallas, Texas, a killing that the Clint Eastwood character in In the Line of Fire (1993) would be directly involved in.
When producer Jennings Lang initially could not find an actor to take the role of Callahan, he sold the film rights to ABC Television. Although ABC wanted to turn it into a television film, the amount of violence in the script was deemed too excessive for television, so the rights were sold to Warner Bros.
John Milius owns one of the actual Model 29s used in principal photography in Dirty Harry and Magnum Force. As of March 2012 it is on loan to the National Firearms Museum in Fairfax, Virginia, and is in the Hollywood Guns display in the William B. Ruger Gallery.
Glenn Wright, Clint Eastwood's costume designer since Rawhide (1959), was responsible for creating Callahan's distinctive old-fashioned brown and yellow checked jacket to emphasize his strong values in pursuing crime.
In September 1981 a case occurred in Germany, under circumstances quite similar to the Barbara Jane Mackle case: A ten-year-old girl, Ursula Hermann, was buried alive in a box fitted with ventilation, lighting and sanitary systems to be held for ransom. The girl suffocated in her prison within 48 hours of her abduction because autumn leaves had clogged up the ventilation duct. Twenty seven (27) years later, a couple was arrested and tried for kidnapping and murder on circumstantial evidence. According to the Daily Mail, the couple were inspired by the scene in which Scorpio kidnaps a girl and places her in an underground box.
One evening Clint Eastwood and Don Siegel had been watching the San Francisco 49ers in Kezar Stadium in the last game of the season and thought the eerie Greek amphitheater-like setting would be an excellent location for shooting one of the scenes where Callahan encounters Scorpio.
The trivia items below may give away important plot points.
Clint Eastwood objected to the end of the film when Harry throws his badge away after killing the Scorpio Killer, arguing with director Don Siegel that Harry knew that being a policeman was the only work for which he was suited (and indeed the sequel Magnum Force (1973) begins with Harry still on the force, with no indication that he ever quit). Siegel eventually convinced Eastwood that Harry threw his badge away as a symbol that he had lost faith in the justice system.
For the iconic final shot when Dirty Harry tosses away his badge, Don Siegel was dismayed to discover that they had only brought one badge to the location shoot, so Clint Eastwood had to throw it perfectly in just one take.
Before each of Harry's 3 combative encounters with Scorpio, there is a cross and or a reference to Christ: 1.) At the rooftop stakeout, the "Jesus Saves" neon sign. 2.) At the park ransom location, the giant, cement cross. 3.) And at 1:35:14, at the pivotal moment when Harry is spotted by his nemesis from the school bus, a cross extending up from the streetlight. Scorpio even exclaims, "Jeeeesssus!"