Set in 1912, the song "Trouble" mentions both the beverage Bevo (first offered in 1916) and the magazine "Captain Billy's Whiz-Bang" (first published in 1919). "Whiz-Bang" is named for a type of artillery round in World War I (1914-1918)--the publisher was a veteran of that war.
When Winthrop asks Harold Hill if his proposed uniform has "a stripe", Harold assures him that it will. But when the boys come into the schoolroom wearing the newly-delivered uniforms, the uniforms very clearly do not have a stripe on the pants. However, the uniforms worn by the marching band at the end do have a stripe.
Right before Shipoopi, Mrs. Shinn says her girls are ready to perform, but Ethel dances with Marcellus in the number and is dressed in a flowered dress. Immediately after the number, she is dressed in her Grecian urn outfit, ready to perform.
In the candy shop when Hill and Marion are sipping on their strawberry sodas, Hill releases his straw and the straw floats to the top. The camera angle changes with Hill holding the straw and it's at the bottom of the glass.
Chairs in front of the stage move around during the July 4th celebration in the auditorium. First there are three together with one chair a ways off to the left; then later, as one of the school board members prepares to sit down, the four chairs are in a group.
In the opening sequence, the train is traveling from the Illinois Iowa. The background visual scroll only shows flat cornfields. We never see it crossing a river, let alone the Mississippi, which is the only way to get between the states in question.