|Date of Birth||26 February 1802, Besançon, Doubs, France|
|Date of Death||22 May 1885, Paris, France (pneumonia)|
|Birth Name||Victor Marie Hugo|
|Height||5' 10" (1.78 m)|
Mini Bio (2)
Although Hugo was fascinated by poems from childhood on, he spent some time on the polytechnic university of Paris until he dedicated all his work to literature. He was one of the few authors who were allowed to reach popularity during lifetime and one of the leaders of French romance.
After the death of his daughter 'Leopoldine' in 1843 he started a career in politics and became member of the Paris chamber where he fought for left ideas. After the reestablishing of monarchy he had to go into exil to Guernesey (1851 - 1870) where his literal work became more important, e.g. "Les Miserables" was written during that period. After his return to Paris he did not join politics anymore.
- IMDb Mini Biography By: Volker Boehm
Victor-Marie Hugo was born on February 26, 1802, in Besançon, France. His father, Joseph-Leopold Hugo, was a general in Napoleon's army who served as Military Governor in Italy and Spain. His mother, Sophie Trebuchet, had an affair with his father's commander, who was shot in 1812 for plotting against Napoleon. At that time young Victor studied at College Louis-le-Grand. In 1819 he founded a review, the "Conservateur Litteraire". In 1822 he published his first collection of poems, "Odes et Poesies Diverses". It gained him ao a royal pension from King Louis XVIII.
He shot to international fame as a playwright with his play "Hernani" (1830). It played to full houses in many countries and had a lasting impact on 19th-century theatre. It also was made into an eponymous opera by Giuseppe Verdi. Hugo's play, "Le roi s'amuse" (1832), became another Verdi opera, "Rigoletto", which has been a staple of many theaters ever since. Hugo's next big theatrical hit was "Lucrezia Borgia" (1833), starring Juliette Drouet, who was a former mistress of Napoleon. In 1834 "Lucrezia Borgia" was transformed into a libretto for the eponymous opera by Gaetano Donizetti.
Drouet became Hugo's life-long mistress and muse. She inspired him to write several volumes of lyrical poetry dedicated to her. She was loyal to Hugo and their relationship lasted for 50 years, until her death in 1882. She was recognized even by Hugo's wife, and was accepted in the family. At the same time Hugo had another affair with Léonie d'Aunet, who was an inspiration for his collection of poetry of an intensely sexual content. It was published as "Mme. Biard poems" in 1848. Hugo remained being a ladies man throughout his life. In 1878 he suffered from a mild stroke after having an exhaustive "game" with his maid. After recovery Hugo continued relationship with Juliett Drouet.
Hugo was an important political figure of his time. His political career was based on his support of Republicanism as a democratic form of government. In 1841 he was appointed Pair de France. He entered the Higher Chamber, where he became a strong proponent of freedom of the press. His position against the death penalty and social injustice gained him tremendous popularity in all layers of society. In 1851, when Napoleon III seized power, Hugo declared him a traitor to the Republic of France. After that Hugo's life was in grave danger. He managed to escape to Brussels, then to the island of Guernsey, where he would live with his family in exile for almost twenty years, until 1870. After the unpopular Napoleon III fell from power, Hugo returned to the Third Republic, and was elected to the Senate.
He published over 50 novels and plays during his lifetime, followed by 20 more posthumous publications. Hugo's literary works had a profound influence on such writers as Albert Camus, Fyodor Dostoevsky and Charles Dickens, among many others. "Les Misérables" (1862) became one of the most well known novels of the 19th century and remains influential in contemporary culture. It became a popular Broadway musical, and was also adapted for film and television more that 40 times in many countries, with the best known film version being made in 1995 (Les misérables (1995)) starring Liam Neeson. The 1996 animated version of his book "The Hunchback of Notre Dame" (The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996)) was nominated for an Oscar.
Victor Hugo was among the most important cultural figures of his time. He was also acknowledged for his political work in shaping democracy and the Third Republic. He died on May 22, 1885, in Paris. His burial ceremony was that of a statesman, and his funeral procession was attended by an estimated one million people. He was laid to rest in the Pantheon on Paris, France.
- IMDb Mini Biography By: Steve Shelokhonov
|Adèle Fourcher||(12 October 1822 - 1868) (her death) (4 children)|